Authors:Kaia Tõnsuaadu, J. Pelt, and Maria Borissova
Summary Thermal reactions in natural fluorapatite or fluorcarbonate apatite and ammonium sulfate mixtures with mole ratio 1:4 at calcination up to 500°C were studied by simultaneous thermogravimetry and FTIR analysis of the evolved gases. The composition of natural apatite has little impact on the release of NH3. Upon the evolution of NH3 nitrous oxides were found in minor amounts. The release of SO2 at temperatures above 400°C is more intensive and occurs at lower temperatures in the case of fluorapatite than of carbonate containing apatites. Evolution of CO2 starts at 250°C with maximum at 350-360°C.
Authors:Kaia Tõnsuaadu, Kārlis Agris Gross, Liene Plūduma, and Mihkel Veiderma
High temperature processing is essential for the preparation of apatites for biomaterials, lighting, waste removal and other applications. This requires a good understanding of the thermal stability and transitions upon heating. The most widely used is hydroxyapatite (HAp), but increasing interest is being directed to fluorapatite (FAp) and chlorapatite (ClAp). The structural modifications for substitutions are discussed to understand the temperature processing range for the different apatites. This is based on a review of the literature from the past few decades, together with recent research results. Apatite thermal stability is mainly determined by the stoichiometry (Ca/P ratio and structural substitutions) and the gas composition during heating. Thermal stability is lowered the most by a substitution of calcium and phosphate, leading to loss in phase stability at temperatures less than 900 °C. The anions in the hexagonal axis, OH in HAp, F in FAp and Cl in ClAp are the last to leave upon heating, and prevention of the loss of these groups ensures high temperature stability. The information discussed here will assist in understanding the changes of apatites during heating in calcination, sintering, hydrothermal processing, plasma spraying, flame pyrolysis, and other high-temperature processes.