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The crisis that unfolded in 2007/2008 turned the attention of the financial world toward liquidity, the lack of which caused substantial losses. As a result, the need arose for the traditional financial models to be extended with liquidity. Our goal is to discover how Hungarian market players relate to liquidity. Our results are obtained through a series of semi-structured interviews, and are hoped to be a starting point for extending the existing models in an appropriate way. Our main results show that different investor groups can be identified along their approaches to liquidity, and they rarely use sophisticated models to measure and manage liquidity. We conclude that although market players would have access to complex liquidity measurement and management tools, there is a limited need for these, because the currently available models are unable to use complex liquidity information effectively.

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Bevezetés és célkitűzés: Retrospektív keresztmetszeti vizsgálatunk célja az occlusiós megtámasztás és az alsó bölcsességfog szerepének vizsgálata volt az angulus- és condylustöréseknél. Módszer és eredmények: Egyoldali, izolált angulus- vagy condylustörött betegeket vizsgáltunk. Az adatgyűjtés betegkartonok és panoráma-röntgenfelvételek segítségével történt. Vizsgálatunkban az elsődleges prediktor változó az occlusiós megtámasztás minősége, a másodlagos prediktor a bölcsességfog jelenléte vagy hiánya volt. A kimeneti változó a törés típusa, illetve az egyéb prediktorok a demográfiai adatok voltak. A prediktorok és a kimeneti változók közti összefüggéseket khi-négyzet-teszttel és logisztikus regressziós analízissel vizsgáltuk. Az angulustörött csoportot 43 (átlagéletkor: 29,9 ± 12,8 év; 98,4% férfi), míg a condylustörött csoportot 37 beteg (átlagéletkor: 46,8 ± 20,2 év; 62,2% férfi) alkotta. Angulustörés esetén 81,4%-ban, míg condylustörés esetén 51,3%-ban láttunk kétoldali occlusiós megtámasztást (p<0,001). Kétoldali occlusiós megtámasztás esetén az angulustörés esélyhányadosa 4,2 volt (p<0,006). Az angulustörések 86%-ában, a condylustörések 43,2%-ában volt jelen bölcsességfog a törés oldalán (p<0,001). Azonos oldali bölcsességfog jelenléte esetén az angulustörés esélye a 8,1-szeresére emelkedett (p<0,001). Amennyiben kétoldali occlusiós megtámasztás és törésoldali bölcsességfog is jelen volt, az angulustörés esélye a 15,9-szeresére nőtt (p<0,001). Következtetés: Az occlusiós megtámasztás és a bölcsességfog együttes és külön-külön való jelenléte is egyértelműen fokozta az angulustörés, és csökkentette a condylustörés rizikóját, míg hiányuk a condylustörés rizikóját fokozta, és az angulustörés esélyét csökkentette. Orv Hetil. 2020; 161(28): 1166–1174.

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A Tolnay–Panofsky-affér, avagy hűség az ifjúsághoz: A bécsi iskola, Max Dvořák és A Vasárnapi Kör

The Tolnay–Panofsky Affair, or Loyalty to the Youth: The Vienna School of Art History, Max Dvořák and the Sunday Circle

Művészettörténeti Értesítő
Csilla Markója
Kata Balázs

The conflict between Charles de Tolnay and Erwin Panofsky that grew unprecedentedly acrimonious in the history of the discipline – the so-called Tolnay–Panofsky affair – was more than mere personal bickering. The documents clearly reveal that the “affair”, which basically affected financial and professional positions, was based on embarrassingly ordinary, occasionally petty-minded questions instead of scientific arguments, and led to a break of relationship probably in spring 1943, also directs the attention to the science political consequences of the hierarchic establishment of American science financing and academia in general in the interwar years and the 1940s, and to differences between European and American scholarship. It can be gleaned that Tolnay’s efforts to be allotted raised stipends (often by a great degree, as the documents unanimously testify) and a confirmed position led to the deterioration of his relationship with the Princeton IAS leaders and community – in spite of the fact that the former leader of the Institute Flexner took Tolnay’s side, at times with threats to Panofsky and Oppenheimer and accusing Panofsky of professional jealousy. Though Tolnay received raised scholarship up to 4000 dollars for three years, the institute decided to part with Tolnay in 1948. In the background of the affair, however, one may discover conflicts based on the diverging views on art history by Panofsky and Tolnay rooted far deeper, in the elementary influences of the Vienna School of Art History and Max Dvořák on the one hand, and of the Sunday Circle and György Lukács, on the other. The art philosophical aspects and methodological consequences of these dissenting concepts of art history may bear significance for the practitioners of the discipline today as well.

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A recombinant cucumber mosaic virus based expression system has been developed for the production of an immunogenic porcine circovirus epitope. The resulting nanoparticle was shown to elicit specific immune response in mice and pigs, when administered parenterally. To evaluate the oral applicability of this vaccine candidate, two experiments were performed. In the first one, the resistance of the vector itself to mucosal environment was tested in mice. Cucumber mosaic virus particles fed to mice were able to elicit specific mucosal and serum antibody production. In the second experiment, recombinant cucumber mosaic virus fed to piglets resulted in the appearance of porcine circovirus specific serum antibodies. The vector proved to be able to survive in the gastrointestinal tract, so that an epitope expressed on its surface could induce specific immune response. These results indicate that the developed plant virus based expression system offers an effective method for mucosal vaccine production.

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The aim of this study was to compare an enzyme-linked fluorescent assay (ELFA)-based and two real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods with the results of the standard culture-based method EN ISO 6579:2002 (bacteriological standard method used in the European Union) for the detection of Salmonella spp. in raw chicken meat. Our investigations were performed on 141 poultry samples sorted from supermarkets.Relative accuracy, relative specificity and relative sensitivity were determined. According to the ISO 16140:2003 criteria for validation of alternative microbiological methods, the ELFA-based method (VIDAS ICS2 + SLM), and real-time PCR methods (TaqMan, Bax) were comparable to the reference standard method for the detection of Salmonella spp. in chicken meat. The use of these methods provide results within 48 hours with high sensitivity (100%). The TaqMan real-time PCR showed a relative specificity of 98% and both of the real-time PCR methods presented 100%.The VIDAS ICS2 + SLM and the Bax real-time PCR methods showed the highest relative accuracy (100%) and 99% in case of the TaqMan method. In conclusion, both the real-time PCR and the ELFA-based assay can be used as a rapid and user-friendly diagnostic method for detection of Salmonella spp. in chicken meat samples.

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Due to the spread of the communicative language teaching method language learners were often encouraged not to use a dictionary but rather infer the meaning of a word or phrase from its context. Proper dictionary use, however, is now seen as an important element of autonomous and life-long language learning. The present research used the quantitative research paradigm and a self-prepared questionnaire (n = 925) to investigate attitudes towards dictionary use in the case of university students studying languages for business. The study investigated participants' willingness to use and pay for dictionaries and their willingness to read usage guides in dictionaries. Our results show that participants typically use a dictionary if they do not know the meaning of a word or phrase, but are reluctant to buy a dictionary and are likewise unwilling to read the information guides in dictionaries. Our results also reveal that willingness to pay for dictionaries is positively influenced by willingness to use dictionaries, willingness to read usage guides in dictionaries and language learners' age.

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