The period between the beginning of the 4th century and the middle of the 5th century AD is the peak of glass production in Pannonia: there is a significant amount of very colourful and diverse glass finds, and there are whole series of vessels. This study is based on the typological classification of about 1000 glass finds. From the second half of the 4th century AD two regions can be highlighted with regard to the geographical distribution of glass vessels. The stretch of the limes between Arrabona and Intercisa, within the area of which the Danube Bend was the most remarkable one, as more than half of the vessels (53%) were found in this region. The other zone was the city of Sopianae and its vicinity, where 20% of the studied glass finds were found.
Snake-thread glass vessels were used from the late 2nd to the mid-3rd century AD. At least two production centres/distribution circles have been identified in the western part of the Roman Empire, which probably owed their existence to Syrian glassmaking artisans migrating to the west. One was located in the Rhine region, the other in Pannonia. Considering the distribution of snake-thread glass fragments known to date from Pannonia, it is striking that 52 of the currently known 112 fragments were found at Intercisa, 45 exemplars came to light at Brigetio and only a few pieces are known from other sites. It is remarkable that in both towns, glass workshops were active during the same period and there is also some evidence that snake-thread glass had been produced in the workshop of Brigetio.
Most juglet pendants are of 4th century from Pannonia, the glass is frequently dark, appearing black. Although juglet pendants have a greater concentration in the eastern Mediterranean, they are also widely attested in the empire’s western half. The following paper presents nine specimens from Hungary, eight from Pannonia Province. Three exemplars were parts of grave inventories, whose other items are also known (Bogád, Csongrád and Ságvár). All three burials can be securely dated to the fourth century. Despite the attractiveness of M. Stern’s suggestion, there is no good reason to associate the Pannonian juglet pendants recovered from mortuary contexts with Christianity. The pieces from Pannonia would rather suggest that juglet pendants cannot be associated with Christian beliefs because the other grave goods in the burials from which they were recovered belie this association.
The method of facet-cutting was invented in the 1st century AD. The glass cutters began to create zoned facet-cut decoration to arrange the facets in horizontal zones divided by linear grooves mostly in Isings 96 bowl in the second half of 2nd century and first half of 3rd century AD. A look at the distribution and the major concentrations of sites reveals that they had been manufactured in four main regions: the Rhine region (perhaps at Cologne), Pannonia, Syria (possibly at Dura Europos) and the Pontic, at Tanais. Its popularity is best indicated by the fact that this elegant ornamental technique began to be applied on silverware which clearly imitated the glass bowls, as shown by the adoption of the Isings 96 hemispherical bowl form that was lacking from among silver vessels.
The study offers the slim beakers with curving body, slim beakers with curving wall and a base ring, slim, cylindrical beakers and slim, cylindrical beakers with a base ring. These all can be related to one workshop on the grounds of their same qualities, colours, measures, decorations, rims, and their chronological and geographical spread. The workshop may have operated at the end of the 3rd century AD, rather in the first half of the 4th century AD.