Agreement and case assignment can be interdependent, partially independent, or independent of each other (Baker & Vinokurova 2010; Baker 2014, 2015). These parametric options appear to have random distribution across languages. This paper claims on the basis of the comparison of the Ugric languages (Mansi, Khanty, and Hungarian) that the correlation of case and agreement or the lack of it may not be random. A strict correlation of case and agreement is attested in sentence structures displaying a fusion of grammatical functions and discourse roles. When these roles are encoded in distinct clausal domains, case and agreement have separate functions and licensing conditions, with case marking grammatical functions, and agreement associated with discourse roles. At the same time, relics of their former syntactic interdependence may survive in morphology, resulting in a partial correlation between case and agreement. It is shown that dependent case theory can account for the whole range of variation attested in the relation of case and agreement.
This paper proposes an explanation of the apparent scope inversion attested in sentences pronounced with a rise fall intonation contour. It argues that a left-peripheral quantifier pronounced with a (fall-)rise is in topic position (Spec, TopP). A topic phrase must refer to an individual already present in the domain of discourse-that which will be predicated about in the sentence. Non-individual-denoting expressions, among them quantifiers, can also be made suitable for the topic role if they are assumed to denote a property which the rest of the sentence predicates some higher-order property about. A quantifier functioning as a contrastive topic denotes a property of plural individuals, and its apparent narrow scope arises from the fact that it is considered to be a predicate over a variable inherent in the lexical representation of the verb.
Whereas it is a well-established fact that young children can perform intuitive addition and subtraction, it is an open question whether they are capable of multiplicative operations on sets before receiving formal training. Earlier studies devoted to the study of intuitive arithmetic sought for evidence of intuitive multiplication in children’s ability to distinguish proportional relations between quantities and numerosities. This paper claims that multiplication operations are present in children’s everyday communication, in their understanding and producing sentences with two numerical quantifiers and a distributivity marker such as the Hungarian Mindhárom gyerek két autóval játszik ’Every one of three kids is playing with two cars’, and Három gyerek két-két autóval játszik ’Three kids are playing with two cars apiece’. The paper gives account of an experiment testing how 5–7-year-old Hungarian children with no training in arithmetic operations interpret such sentences. The experiment shows that they have access to the multiplicative readings of distributive constructions; they not only accept them as true but at the age of 6–7 they can also actively compute the product of multiplication. The results also outline the acquisition path of multiplication, showing that children first multiply sets of concrete objects, then they represent the objects by their fingers, before they learn to manipulate sets mentally. Our results highlight the fact that language and mathematics are intertwined not only on the lexical level. Grammatical operations involving quantified expressions, among others, encode logical or mathematical operations on sets. Even if linguistic encoding is often ambiguous, grammatically encoded mathematical operations pave the way for abstract mathematics.
The authors report the first case of bovine neosporosis in Hungary based on investigations made on an aborted fetus. The diagnostic methods included traditional as well as molecular techniques. This record extends further the geographic range of the disease.