Authors:Katalin Badak-Kerti, Szabina Németh, Andreas Zitek, and Ferenc Firtha
In our research marzipan samples of different sugar to almond paste ratios (1:1, 2:1, 3:1) were stored at 17 °C. Reducing sugar content was measured by analytical method, texture analysis was done by penetrometry, electric characteristics were measured by conductometry and hyperspectral images were taken 6–8 times during the 16 days of storage. For statistical analyses (discriminant analysis, principal component analysis) SPSS program was used.
According to our findings with the hyperspectral analysis technique, it is possible to identify how long the samples were stored (after production), and to which class (ratio of sugar to almond) the sample belonged. The main wavelengths which gave the best discrimination results among the days of storage were between 960 and 1100 nm. The type of the marzipan was easy to distinguish with the hyperspectral data; the biggest differences were observed at 1200 and 1400 nm, which are connected to the first overtone of C-H bound, therefore correlate with the oil content. The spatial distribution of penetrometric, electric and spectral properties were also characteristic to fructose content.
The fructose content of marzipan is difficult to measure by usual optical ways (polarimetry, spectroscopy), but since fructose is hygroscopic, the spatial distribution of spectral properties can be characteristic.
Authors:Katalin Badak-Kerti, Viktória Zsom-Muha, Tamás Zsom, Dávid Nagy, and József Felföldi
In the experiments, the sound generated during the breaking of chocolate samples was examined. The fracture was performed by a precision penetrometer, the breaking sound was recorded. Texture index (TI) was calculated from the resulting signal. First the change of the resulting TI was monitored as a function of the samples' temperature. The sample groups of the same dark chocolate with different temperatures were completely separated from each other with statistical tool (LDA, linear discriminant analyses), but no trend was found to describe the change. Secondly, based on the TI, we could identify and classify the chocolate samples in the appropriate groups (based on cocoa content from 40 to 85%). According to linear discriminant analyses chocolates with different cocoa content were completely separated and showed a certain pattern. Based on the obtained results, it can be stated that the cocoa content of chocolate can be determined on the basis of TI obtained by acoustic method.
Authors:Tímea Kaszab, Lídia Bornemisza, and Katalin Badak-Kerti
The objective of our experiment was to investigate the rheological properties of a compound coating depending on the pre-treatment temperature regimes.
Compound coating samples were measured at six different temperatures with 2 °C resolution between 40 and 50 °C. One part of melted samples was measured by RV1 rotational rheometer at the actual melting temperatures and the other part of melted samples was filled into 9 × 9 × 9 mm cubes molds. These cubes were cooled 24 h in freezer (−18 °C) and next day the samples were warmed to room temperature for 3 hours with different temperature combinations. The solid cubes were measured with Texture Profile Analysis (TPA) test by SMS TA-XTplus Texture Analyzer at room temperature.
Results show the effect of pre-treatment on the viscosity of the coating. Furthermore, significant differences were found among the samples cooled with different cooling methods. Our results stress the importance of the correct handling of the materials for confectioners.