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A cigányság középosztályosodása

The Emergence of Romani Middle Class

Educatio
Author: Katalin Forray R.

Absztrakt:

A cigány, roma népességet hagyományosan úgy szokták tekinteni, mint a társadalom leghátrányosabb helyzetű csoportját, amelynek sok gazdasági, társadalmi és kulturális segítségre volna szüksége, hogy integrálódjék a többségi társadalomba. Ebben a tanulmányban a szerző, ellenkezőleg, a cigány, roma társadalom középosztályosodását mutatja be Magyarországon. A cigány, roma középosztályosodás századok óta tart, de nehezen vagy sehogy sem volt megfigyelhető, mivel azok, akik integrálódtak a középosztályba, egyben asszimilálódtak is. Az utóbbi években azonban új jelenségre figyelhettünk fel: a cigányság a középosztályosodás során egyre inkább megőrzi cigány, roma identitását, amit eredeti nevének a megőrzése is mutat. A cigány, roma lakosság iskolázottsági szintje drámaian emelkedik. A kutatások, amelyek eredetileg a cigány, roma elemi oktatásra összpontosultak, egyre inkább áttevődnek a cigányság közép- és felsőfokú oktatására. Új aktor is színre lépett a cigányság iskolázásának támogatásában, a tradicionális (keresztény) egyházak. A szerző néhány egyetemi hallgató életpályáján keresztül illusztrálja a fő társadalmi intézmények (iskola, felsőoktatás, egyház, civil szervezetek) együttműködését a cigány, roma középosztályosodás folyamatában.

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Abstract

According to our initial assumption, there would be two characteristic strategies for Romani catching up. One strategy is to lift the Romanies out of poverty and bring their living conditions closer to the average living conditions of the majority society. According to the other strategy, Romanies create a national minority in the majority society. It should be supported so that the members of the community could preserve their national characteristics and exercise their minority rights. By reviewing the literature (e.g., Armillei 2014; Boscoboinik & Giordano 2008; Ladányi & Szelényi 2016) we searched in which country which strategies are being followed by current governments. The result is that these strategies coexist within a country and are increasingly intermingled according to existing governments. The reason for this phenomenon is the recent changes in Romani societies and the emergence of new middle classes. There are both economic and cultural conditions for emerging these middle classes. A successful Romani strategy has to contain therefore, both economic and cultural actions. The governments of the region must contribute not only to the catching-up of the Romanies but also to the formation of their Romani middle classes.

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Presented: European Conference on Educational Research 2019

Proposal Information Aim

The research aims to explore the links between school development and the demands of local communities in present-day Central and Eastern European (CEE) societies.

Rationale

Before the sociopolitical turn of 1989/1990, schools in Hungary and East Central Europe were strictly centralized and monopolized by the communist parties and the governments. Schools and curricula were centrally managed, subjects (e.g., Russian language teaching) were prescribed and compulsory, and the structure of education was uniformly defined – throughout the region – without considering the demands of the consumers (the local population). As an outcome

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In most European countries, Roma people are traditionally less successful in education systems than the non-Roma population. Especially, Roma women have traditionally been less involved in schooling compared to men than they suffer from multiple deprivations: First, their different cultural/ethnic traditions often lead to discrimination in school education. Second, a large part of Roma live in poverty. Third, women also have disadvantages through the gender aspect, because the traditional Roma culture defines the place of women in the family and an educational career is not necessary for that. Despite these multiple deprivations, Roma women are increasingly successful in the education system. In modern societies, however, Roma women are present at school, although usually at the lowest, compulsory level. The lack of education is often the reason that they are only partly present in the labor market. Even if they have a job, they often receive the worst positions. Several countries, such as Hungary, also paid particular attention to education policy. With the emergence of resilience, disadvantaged young people started to be involved in education. The model of inclusive school helps them in schooling. The current HERJ issue discusses the situation of female Roma and Gypsy women in some European countries: Croatia, Poland, Norway, England, Germany, and Hungary. First, our aim is to describe their particular needs (possible), improving and impeding factors in educational systems and second to share experiences about developing education concepts, which could support the educational participation of Roma women and – as much as possible – also their success in the education system.

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This article discusses the (mostly impeding) impact of the traditional female role model on the learning success of Roma and Gypsy women – based on two interview studies with Roma and Gypsy women in Hungary about their educational biography – with focus on the case of Marianne, a Hungarian Gypsy woman, who has come from a background of multiple deprivations but has managed a successful educational career (higher education graduation). Her educational biography can be seen as typical for Roma and Gypsy women in Hungary. She achieved her university degree at the age of 40 years – with delays and breaks – mostly in evening courses in addition to family and work. During her studies, she questioned the traditional female role model and experienced strong identity crises in her educational career because of the incompatible attitudes of the majority and minority culture. The departure from tight and constricting family relationships was very distressing. However, she also experienced the freedom to decide, could develop her talents, and took her life into her own hands, which altogether strengthened her self-esteem.

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Befogadók vagy jogvédők?

A roma/cigány oktatáspolitika dilemmái

Social Inclusion or Legal Protection?

The Dilemma of Roma Educational Policy in Hungary Today
Educatio
Authors: Katalin Forray R. and Tamás Kozma

Összefoglaló. A befogadás (inklúzió) eredetileg a szegénypolitika (szociálpolitika) szakkifejezése volt. Onnan terjedt át a társadalompolitikába és a pedagógiába (gyógypedagógia). A Lisszaboni Egyezmény (2000) óta az Európai Unió hivatalos állásfoglalásaiban visszatérően szerepel mint törekvés a „társadalmi kohézió” erősítésére. A jogvédelem eredete visszanyúlik az 1960-as évtized amerikai polgárjogi mozgalmára. Két eset ismertetésével a szerzők bemutatják a kétféle mozgalom hasonlóságait és különbségeit; összekapcsolva őket a roma/cigány oktatáspolitika dilemmáival. A roma/cigány szegénység még mindig szükségessé teszi a befogadás politikáját. Ugyanakkor a szegénységből kiemelkedő roma/cigány középosztály köreiben erősödik a politizálás szándéka és a jogvédelem igénye.

Summary. “Inclusion” has initially been a social policy term. Its use spread from there to policies of welfare, healthcare and education (special education). Inclusion has repeatedly mentioned since the Treaty of Lisbon (2007) in European Union resolutions as an effort to strengthen “social cohesion”. “Legal protection”, on the other hand, goes back to the American civil rights movement of the 1960s. By describing two Hungarian cases, the authors present the similarities and differences between the two policies; linking them to the dilemmas of Roma education policy. Inclusion as a social policy is still necessary because of existing Roma poverties. At the same time, the intention to politicize and the need for legal protection is growing among the new Roma middle class, which emerges out of poverty and steps into the political arena.

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Bevándorlás és oktatás

Immigration and Education

Educatio
Author: Katalin Forray R.

Absztrakt:

A bevándorlás új hulláma a problémák sokaságát hozza magával mindkét oldal számára. A történelemben nem ismeretlen a magyarok számára a bevándorlás, de az utolsó nagyobb bevándorló népesség a cigányság, amelynek máig beilleszkedési problémái vannak. A tanulmányok az oktatás kérdéseit vizsgálják. Kitekintenek a jelenlegi nem magyar tanulókra, az iskoláskorú migránsok problémáira, a tanulók és tanáraik attitűdjeire. Végül a német és francia tapasztalatokat mutatják be.

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A cigányság képének változásai a harmincéves Educatió®-ban

Changes of the Roma Image in EDUCATIO®, 1991–2021

Educatio
Author: Katalin Forray R.

Összefoglaló. A tanulmány a cigány, roma népesség oktatási helyzetét mutatja be a rendszerváltás óta eltelt időszakban. Áttekinti a kisebbségi törvény eredményeit és korrekcióját, a magyarországi cigányok által beszélt nyelvek, a romani és beás nyelvek bevonását a hivatalosan elismert nyelvek közé. Hangsúlyozza a Gandhi Gimnázium és a Pécsi Tudományegyetemen megvalósult Romológia Tanszék fontosságát. A cigány, roma népesség túlnyomó többsége ugyan ma is alacsony iskolázottságú, ám vannak olyan térségek, ahol jelentős eredmények születtek. Az iskolázottsági szint emelésére irányuló kormányzati, egyházi és civil erőfeszítések eredményei lassan megmutatkoznak.

Summary. The study reviews policies related to the education of the Roma population and their outcomes since the change of regime. It presents the Minority Law and its subsequent amendments to the schooling of Romani and Beas languages. He emphasizes the importance of Gandhi High School and the Department of Romology of the University of Pécs. It characterizes the low level of education of the Roma population by presenting case studies. Finally, it describes the possibilities of support by describing two helpful interventions. Most importantly, that the extreme backwardness of the Roma, previously considered general, has declined significantly.

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A roma/cigány társadalom átalakulása

The Transformation of Romani Society in the Recent Government Period (2018–2022)

Educatio
Author: Katalin Forray R.

Összefoglaló. Az elmúlt kormányzati ciklusban (2018–2022) a roma/cigány társadalom átalakulása felgyorsult. A középosztályosodásnak Magyarországon is különböző útjai vannak, amelyeket a roma/cigány társadalom különböző etnikai csoportjai eltérően használnak. A tanulmány az iskolázottság és az azt támogató programok szerepét vizsgálja. A támogató programokat rendszerint a kormányzat kezdeményezte, de „kiszerződte” civil (egyházi) szervezeteknek. A támogató programok csak akkor voltak sikeresek, ha a civil társadalom együtt tudott és akart működni a kormányzattal. A roma/cigány felemelkedésnek is ez a kulcsa.

Summary. The transformation of Romani society in Hungary accelerated in the last term of government (2018–2020). The Romani middle class emerged in various ways according to the different ethnic origins and cultures. The author examines the role of schooling in developing the Romani middle class and the programmes that support it. The government usually initiated supporting programmes but ‘outsourced’ to non-governmental organisations like foundations, associations, and churches. Supporting programmes proved to be successful only if civil society was able and willing to cooperate with the government. It is the key to the emergence of the Romani middle class in Hungary.

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Abstract

What happens, if a university moves to a town that never had a higher education institution previously? What is the impact of this development both on the community and the institution? The aim of this paper is to answer this question. The authors use the concept of ‘social innovation’ for understanding the developments. An institute may initiate, organise and coordinate all kinds of learning that takes place in a given community (Bradford, 2003). To do so, the institute may have to change its missions (not only its third, but also its first, second and third ones. These developments could be interpreted as a ‘social innovation’ during which the local economy and society was challenged and they looked for new responses. As suggested in the ‘social innovation’ literature the main research method was participatory research, combined with structured and semi-structured interviews, story-telling and narrative analyses. As a result, three interest groups could be described with various requirements different demands toward the university; while the university had to modify its structure, curriculum and communications. The main lesson to learn is that ’social innovation’ as a frame of interpretation can be used to understand the developmental processes that occurred between the locals and a new university.

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