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The protista Acanthamoeba is a free-living amoeba existing in various environments. A number of species among protista are recognized as human pathogens, potentially causing Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK), granulomatous amoebic encephalitis (GAE), and chronic granulomatous lesions. In this study, 10 rhizosphere samples were collected from maize and alfalfa plants in experimental station at Institute of Genetics, Microbiology and Biotechnology, Szent István University. We detected Acanthamoeba based on the quantitative real-time PCR assay and sequence analysis of the 18S rRNA gene. All studied molecular biological methods are suitable for the detection of Acanthamoeba infection in humans. The quantitative real-time PCR-based methods are more sensitive, simple, and easy to perform; moreover, these are opening avenue to detect the effect of number of parasites on human disease. Acanthamoeba species were detected in five (5/10; 50%) samples. All Acanthamoeba strains belonged to T4 genotype, the main AK-related genotype worldwide. Our result confirmed Acanthamoeba strains in rhizosphere that should be considered as a potential health risk associated with human activities in the environment.

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The protective role of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) against the phytopathogen Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis (Cmm) was examined in tomato plants. Seven different AMF isolates were used to determine which ones were able to induce effectively resistance against Cmm. Stems of seven-week tomato plants were infected with Cmm, then a disease severity index (DSI) was determined during the next three weeks. In addition to different responses to mycorrhizal inoculation, three levels of responses to the bacterial disease were recognized in treatments. Plants inoculated with Rhizophagus irregularis (Ri) showed both the highest colonization and the highest induced resistance to Cmm while the effect of Funneliformis mosseae, Gigaspora margarita and Claroideoglomus claroideum on mycorrhizal colonization and on the induced resistance were intermediate and high, respectively. Subsequently, Ri was chosen to inoculate ethylene-insensitive tomato mutant line Never ripe (Nr) and its background (Pearson) to investigate the possible role of ethylene (ET) in the mycorrhiza-induced resistance (MIR). The results showed that Ri could induce systemic resistance against Cmm in the Pearson background, whereas ET-insensitivity in Nr plants impaired MIR. These results suggest that ET is required for Ri-induced resistance against Cmm. To our knowledge, this is the first study to examine the effect of different AMF isolates on the response of tomato plants to Cmm and involvement of ET in MIR against Cmm.

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Expression patterns of cel5A and cel5B , two endoglucanase encoding genes of Thermobifida fusca were compared by quantitative real-time PCR. With Avicel as carbon source the transcript level of cel5A continuously increased until the 10 th hour of incubation and then a sharp decrease was observed, whereas cel5B presented a slow constitutive expression on this substrate. When the microcrystalline cellulose powder MN300 was used as the inducing carbon source, the expression patterns of the two genes were similar. A low initial level of expression was followed by a rapid increase at the 5 th hour of incubation; a transient repression was then observed at the 10 th hour but after this sampling time, the expression levels started to increase again. The relative expression levels of cel5A were always higher than those of cel5B . Differences in transcription patterns of these two genes can be explained with the imperfect structure of the CelR binding regulatory region of cel5B .

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The association between terrestrial plants and arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi is one of the most common and widespread mutualistic plant-fungi interaction. AM fungi are of beneficial effects on the water and nutrient uptake of plants and increase plant defense mechanisms to alleviate different stresses. The aim of this study was to determine the level of polyphenol oxidase (PPO), guaiacol peroxidase (POX) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) enzyme activities and to track the expression of glutathione S-transferase (GST) gene in plant-arbuscular mycorrhizal system under temperature- and mechanical stress conditions. Our results suggest that induced tolerance of mycorrhizal sunflower to high temperature may be attributed to the induction of GST, POX and PPO enzyme activities as well as to the elevated expression of GST. However, the degree of tolerance of the plant is significantly influenced by the age which is probably justified by the energy considerations.

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Agrokémia és Talajtan
Authors: Mária Óbert, Antalné Csepregi, Katalin Posta, Erika Tóth Király, and László Hornok

Szennyvíziszapból és lignocellulóz-tartalmú növényi hulladékból álló, termofil fázisban lévő komposzthalmokból 21 gombát izoláltunk. A morfológiai és molekuláris módszerekkel azonosított gombák tíz fajba tartoztak, hat termofil fajba ( Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus versicolor, Rhizomucor pusillus, Thermoascus aurantiacus, Talaromyces thermophilus, Thermomyces lanuginosus ) és négy mezofilbe ( Aspergillus oryzae, Aspergillus terreus, Neosartorya fischerii és Trichoderma hamatum ). A két leggyakoribb faj a T. lanuginosus és a T. thermophilus volt, az előbbit nyolc, az ut_

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White rot caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (SS) is one of the most devastating plant diseases of sunflower. Controlling this pathogen by available tools hardly result in acceptable control. The aim of this study was to elucidate the effects of plant resistance inducers, BTH (benzothiadiazole in Bion 50 WG) and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) on disease development of white rot in three sunflower genotypes. Defence responses were characterized by measuring the disease severity and identifying cellular/histological reactions (e.g. autofluorescence) of host plants upon infection. Depending on the host genotype, a single application of inducers reduced disease symptoms. Histological examination of host responses revealed that BTH and/or AMF pre-treatments significantly impeded the development of pathogenic hyphae in Iregi szürke csíkos and P63LE13 sunflower plants and it was associated with intensive autofluorescence of cells. Both localized and systemic induction of resistance was observed. Importantly, the frequency of mycorrhization of hybrid P63LE13 and PR64H41 was significantly increased upon BTH treatment, so it had a positive effect on the formation of plant-mycorrhiza interactions in sunflower. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the additive effect of BTH on mycorrhization and the positive effect of these inducers against SS in sunflower.

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