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  • Author or Editor: Katalin Szomor x
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During clinical trials, samples from Hungarian patients of different age groups were tested for antibodies against all 3 serotypes of poliovirus, a member of Picornaviridae family. During the virus neutralization serological test, blood samples were titrated using permanent virus concentration. Based on the cythopathic effect observed under a light microscope, the antibody level of the patient was assessed. The 100 people examined were classified into 5 groups based on age and type of original vaccine: I. Newborns, no vaccination given; II. Immunosuppressed patients; III. Born before 1986, received only OPV vaccine; IV. Born between 1992–2005, received a combination of OPV and IPV vaccines; V. Born after 2006, received only IPV vaccine. Results show that vaccination coverage meets all the criteria. None of the immunized persons was seronegative to all three polioviruses. Both IPV and OPV vaccines are effective against poliovirus. Blood samples from newborn babies with no immunization were also examined. Results show that most newborns have maternal antibodies in their blood. Results of group II show that immunosuppression does not have a negative influence on blood antibody levels against polioviruses. In spite of the low number of samples, our results show that seroconversion after immunization in the Hungarian population is adequate. For more accurate results about vaccination coverage in the population, further trials would be necessary.

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Viral interference was discovered about 60 years ago. Molecular epidemiology revealed that this phenomenon possesses important biological implications, it can reduce the epidemic spread of certain viruses from time to time (influenza and enteroviruses) and the efficiency of live vaccination can be impaired, too. Phenomena observed during the last 80 years in Hungary are analyzed. It is suggested to concentrate the distribution of MMR vaccines to seasons of limited influenza and enterovirus circulation. Interference seems to impair the progress of wild poliovirus eradication in the endemic tropical countries. It is recommended to enhance enterovirus surveillance in the region of European countries, since the exchange of the oral poliovirus vaccine to the enhanced inactivated polio vaccine might result in enhanced circulation of non-polio enteroviruses leading to the increase in the number of type I (juvenile) diabetes patients.

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In accordance with the 2015 regional goal for measles and rubella elimination of the WHO European Region, only a few imported cases have been documented of both diseases in Hungary for years.This paper presents a case of a Hungarian woman, born in 1975, who received measles vaccination at age of 12 months and later at age of 11 years, according to her certificate of vaccination. In 2009, after arriving home from a vacation in Ireland, she developed acute measles infection with clinical symptoms. It was confirmed by the detection of measles specific IgM, IgA and IgG antibodies, and by detection of viral nucleic acid from throat swab in virus transport medium.Additionally, an outbreak occurred in December of 2011 among a family emigrated from Romania to Hungary. No new measles cases were diagnosed among the contact persons of neither the young Hungarian woman returning from Ireland, nor the family emigrated from Romania. This observation refers to the effectiveness of the Hungarian vaccination program.

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Transmission of pathogens via healthcare workers’ (HCWs) hands is one of the most frequent means of spreading multi-resistant organisms and occurring healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) in hospitals. The role of contaminated hands in pathogen transmission was recognized by Hungarian physician, Ignác Semmelweis. Hand hygiene prevents cross-infections in hospitals, but numerous epidemiological and microbiology-based studies have documented low compliance of HCWs with this simple procedure. Furthermore, hand hygiene perception of HCWs plays an important role in determining hand hygiene compliance. Our aim was to describe the opinion of HCWs about their perception regarding hand hygiene practice. Our further goal was to strengthen a laboratory basis for bacterial backup control of nosocomial pathogens. A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted between December 2010 and February 2011 in 13 participating hospitals in Hungary. HCWs know that there is correlation between contaminated hands and HAIs (83%), but neither the frequency (62%) nor the implementation (73%) of their hand hygiene performance are satisfying.We recommend that multimodal interventions — highlighted active microbiological surveillance of HCWs’ hands — are the most suitable strategies to reduce the occurrence of HAIs and to determine their impact on cross-transmission of microorganisms and to overcome barriers of HCWs.

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Acta Veterinaria Hungarica
Authors: Mária Takács, Ágnes Dencs, Csenge Csiszár, Andrea Hettmann, Erzsébet Rusvai, Katalin Szomor, Vilmos Pálfi and Béla Nagy

Torque teno virus (TTV) belongs to the floating genus of Anellovirus . It was discovered in a human patient, and later it was also found in animals including pigs. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence and estimate the prevalence of swine TTV in Hungarian pig herds for the first time, and to characterise the viruses found. Serum samples of 82 adult swine from 13 piggeries and 44 weaned pigs from one large herd were tested by PCR for the presence of TTV DNA. Viral DNA was found in 30% of the adult swine and 73% of the weaned pigs tested. Liver and intestine of weaned pigs were also tested and found to be infected at a lower rate. The TTV sequences found in sera and intestines were similar and could be clustered as swine genogroup 1. However, the sequences derived from one liver were remarkably different from all other known genogroups and seemed to represent a new genogroup.

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Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica
Authors: Katalin Szomor, Zita Rigó, Enikő Bán, Lívia Nagy, Teodóra Szalkai, Zsuzsanna Balogh, Emőke Ferenczi and Mária Takács

The presence of WNV in Europe has been well known for decades, although the first human infections and avian outbreaks were diagnosed in Hungary only in 2003. An annual average of 6–8 cases of the neuroinvasive form of WNV infection has been detected in the region since then, but a higher number (17) of WNV associated neuroinvasive disease occurred in 2008.In 2004, a surveillance system was established for monitoring WNV-associated meningo-encephalitis cases in Hungary, but a milder type of illness (with fever, rash and/or influenza like symptoms) is not followed. Fifty-two sera of 45 patients with mild clinical symptoms (fever, exanthema) were tested for anti-WNV antibodies in 2008 in a retrospective study by immunofluorescence test and ELISA. Seven patients had antibodies against WNV, serologic evidence of recent WNV infection was found in 4 out of the 7 patients. Infections could be acquired predominantly in August and in September, which seems to be a risk period for WNV in Hungary.The possibility of a recent WNV infection should be taken into consideration in the occurrence of fever and rush at late summer. Differential diagnosis of exanthematous patients should include WNV serology tests and should be done routinely.

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Orvosi Hetilap
Authors: Bálint Szalai, Éva Hercegh, Nóra Magyar, Dániel Déri, Mónika Rózsa, Zsuzsanna Molnár, Dávid Kuti, Zoltán Kis, Katalin Szomor, Mária Takács and Erzsébet Barcsay

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Bevezetés: Magyarországon 2020. március 4-én sikerült először kimutatni a SARS-CoV-2 jelenlétét két iráni beteg felső légúti mintájában. Az első pozitív esetek megjelenését követően felmerült a kérdés, hogy a vírus mikor kerülhetett be Magyarországra, esetleg okozott-e korábban megbetegedést. 2020. március 4-ét megelőzően a kifejezetten SARS-CoV-2-vizsgálatra beküldött 224 légúti minta közül egyetlen sem bizonyult pozitívnak a fent említett 2 minta kivételével. Célkitűzés: A Nemzeti Népegészségügyi Központ Légúti Vírusok Nemzeti Referencia Laboratóriuma célul tűzte ki, hogy a 2020. január 1. és 2020. április 19. között légútivírus-vizsgálatra beérkezett mintákat visszamenőlegesen megvizsgálja az új koronavírus irányában. Módszer: A tanulmányhoz felhasználtuk egyrészt az influenzafigyelő szolgálatban részt vevő, virológiai mintavételezésre is felkért (ún. sentinel) orvosok által rendszeresen vett, hetente beküldött légúti mintákat, másrészt az egyéb, diagnosztikus céllal beérkezett beteganyagokat. A vizsgálatokat real-time PCR-módszerrel végeztük. Eredmények: A sentinel orvosok által beküldött 465 légúti mintából egy sem bizonyult SARS-CoV-2-pozitívnak. Az egyéb (nem SARS-CoV-2) légúti diagnosztikus vizsgálatra érkező 551 minta között sem találtunk március 4-e előtt vett pozitív mintát. Következtetések: Ezen adatok alapján valószínűsíthető, hogy az elsőként 2020. március 4-én diagnosztizált esetek előtt a SARS-CoV-2 nem okozott klinikai tünetekkel járó fertőzést az országban. Orv Hetil. 2020; 161(38): 1619–1622.

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