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Abstract

Scholarly publication of folk riddles in Hungary started in the mid-19th century. Among the early sources was the first classic collection of Hungarian folktales, Eredeti népmesék [Authentic Folktales], compiled by László Arany, which includes a separate chapter comprising 54 riddle tales. Manuscripts related to this publication were found in the Hungarian Academy of Sciences among other collections from the 19th century and identified in the 1960s as having been recorded by members of the Arany family. The manuscripts contain all the riddles published by László Arany, along with 25 riddle texts that remained unpublished. Comparison of the two sources reveals the editing process: the selection and arrangement of the material, along with the text modifications applied by László Arany. The first part of this article consists of a few terminological notes on tales and riddle tales in 19th-century Hungary, followed by the description of the riddle material in the manuscripts associated with the Arany family. In the second part the author presents in more detail the editing process which shows a far higher degree of conscious editorial attention than other publications of folk riddles in the period.

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In this study we analyze the results of a sociolinguistic survey conducted in Hungary in 2004–2005, with the goal of exploring some popular views of the proverb and anti-proverb and their functions in contemporary Hungarian society. Using data collected from 298 subjects, we focus on three major questions. First, our aim was to establish the lists of the proverbs most frequently used nowadays, as well as the ones most popular for variation. Our second goal was to discover our subjects’ thoughts about the use of proverbs and anti-proverbs, as well as about their views of the people who use them. And, last but not least, our third task was to compare what people say about their own usage of proverbs and anti-proverbs to what they think about the ways in which other people use these expressions.The complex analysis of the results of the survey can illumine interesting aspects; for example, the correlation between the subject’s gender and age and the use of proverbs and anti-proverbs. We also have to deal with the contradictions of folk concepts concerning this topic: there is a significant contrast between the ways in which subjects describe their own habits and the ways in which they talk about other people’s use of proverbs and anti-proverbs.

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Napjainkban a peptikus fekélybetegség etiológiai tényezőinek a Helicobacter pylori fertőzést, illetve a nem szteroid gyulladáscsökkentő gyógyszerek szedését tekintik. Ezek viszont nem magyarázzák teljes mértékben a fekélybetegség kialakulását, szakirodalmi adatok szerint pszichoszociális tényezők mint etiológiai faktorok szerepe hangsúlyozott. Jelen vizsgálatunk célja feltérképezni azokat a pszichoszociális változókat, amelyek szerepet játszanak a gyomor- és nyombélfekély kialakulásában és fennmaradásában, éspedig függőség, állandó vágy a szeretetre és gondoskodásra, negatív életesemények, depresszióra való hajlam, bizonytalan kötődési stílus, stressz és kedvezőtlen anyagi helyzet. Kérdőíves felmérést végeztünk fekélybetegek és nem fekélyes személyek körében. Eredményeink bizonyították, hogy jelen vizsgálati csoportjainkra vonatkoztatva a Helicobacter pylori fertőzés nem tekinthető az egyetlen fekélybetegség kiváltó oknak, hasonlóan az NSAID szedés sem. Pszichológiai változók szerepet játszhatnak a betegség kialakulásában és fennmaradásában, főként a HP negatív betegek esetében. A fekélybetegek hajlamosak depresszióra, szeretettség-igényük nagymértékű, a negatív életeseményeket érzelmileg megterhelőbbnek érzékelik, anyagi helyzetüket kedvezőtlenebbnek ítélik meg és kevésbé jellemző körükben a feladatközpontú megküzdési mód.

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Proverbs have never been considered sacrosanct; on the contrary, they have frequently been used as satirical, ironic or humorous comments on a given situation. Wolfgang Mieder has coined the term “Antisprichwort” (anti-proverb) for such deliberate proverb innovations (also known as alterations, mutations, parodies, transformations, variations, wisecracks, fractured proverbs). The focus of this study is on different mechanisms of variation in Anglo-American, German, French, Russian and Hungarian anti-proverbs. The mechanisms discussed and exemplified in the study include replacing a single word, substituting two or more words, changing the second part of the proverb, adding new words, adding literal interpretations, repeating identical or phonetically similar words, mixing two or more proverbs, word-order reversal, rhyme, changing the first part of the proverb, and omission of words.

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On the basis of French, Hungarian, English, German and Russian corpora of anti-proverbs (deliberate proverb innovations, also known as alterations, mutations, parodies, transformations, variations, wisecracks, and fractured proverbs), we examine word play based on polysemy, homonymy, and homophony. After a survey of the proverbs most frequently used for these types of alteration, this study investigates anti-proverbs linked to the theme of sexuality. Finally, we explore the use of proper nouns in proverb transformations based on polysemy, homonymy, and homophony.

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Acta Ethnographica Hungarica
Authors:
Hrisztalina Hrisztova-Gotthardt
,
Anna Litovkina
,
Péter Barta
, and
Katalin Vargha

Paronomasia is a popular form of wordplay often used to transform proverbs into antiproverbs (deliberate proverb innovations, also known as alterations, mutations, parodies, transformations, variations, wisecracks, and fractured proverbs) by replacing certain phonemes with similar ones, or by adding or omitting phonemes. The present paper describes and exemplifies this sort of pun by using selected German, Hungarian, English, French and Russian language data. The first part of the paper focuses on the linguistic aspects of paronomasia; the second part stresses semantic characteristics. This study also examines the role of wordplay on the theme of sexuality, and then comments on the use of proper nouns in proverb transformations. We conclude that all five of the languages in our research corpus use similar, if not identical, approaches to forge a “twisted wisdom” out of a simple proverb.

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Acta Ethnographica Hungarica
Authors:
Veronika Lajos
,
Gabriella Vámos
,
Judit Kis-Halas
,
Csaba Mészáros
,
Katalin Vargha
, and
Balogh Jánosné Horváth Terézia
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Acta Ethnographica Hungarica
Authors:
Katalin VARGHA
,
István KINDA
,
Éva DEMETER
,
András SIMON
,
László MÓD
,
Dániel BÁRTH
,
Vilmos VOIGT
,
Ildikó KRÍZA
,
Dóra CSISZÉR
,
Mária BIHAR KEPE
, and
Dávid SOMFAI KARA

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