In Galicia, in the multiethnic borderland of the early 1830s, we observe a slow completion of cultural separation and marginalization processes and shrinkage of integration and assimilation strategies as ways of ethnic identity-building. This process of cultural and linguistic separation of Ukrainians towards Poles culminated in Galicia in the 1880s and 1890s with the attainment of a mature political phase through Ukrainian Galicians. This paper analyses the origins of this process through the biography and works of Markiyan Shashkevych.
The interwar period was crucial for the development of Polish–Ukrainian relations in the following decades. Political commentaries, studies in linguistics, social sciences, and legislative acts from this period reflect the changes of Polish attitudes towards the Ukrainian minority. In the late 1920s and 1930s, the traditional and exonymic terminology Rusin and ruski was gradually replaced by the new forms Ukrainiec and ukraiński.