Authors:Jin-Hong Lee, Jong-Myoung Lim, and Ki-Hyun Kim
Instrumental neutron activation analysis was conducted on PM 10 samples collected in Daejeon city, Korea during September 2001 to May 2002. Our measurement data were analyzed to explain the behavior of particle-bound elemental components in relationship with Asian Dust (AD) events. The results of our analysis indicated that the major crustal elements (e.g., Al, Ca, Fe, K, Mg, and Ti) showed strong enrichment (about 3 to 9 times higher concentration levels) during the AD period accompanied by the increase in the PM 10 levels (e.g., by about 3 times). However, the concentrations of anthropogenically derived elements (such as As, Br, Sb, Se and Zn) exhibited moderate change during the AD period. Hence, the computation of enrichment factor (EF) indicated that the magnitude of EF values during the AD period was even smaller in the case of toxic metals than its non-AD counterpart. The existence of relatively low EF values during the AD period can be attributed to the excessive input of crustal components. The overall results of our study suggest that both absolute and relative elemental composition of aerosol particles can be altered significantly by the AD events.
Authors:Ki-Wook Kim, Byoung-Ho Lee, Hyun-Joong Kim, Klanarong Sriroth, and John R. Dorgan
The research focused on enhancing the mechanical properties and thermal stability of bio-composites with natural flours and improving the interfacial adhesion between biodegradable polymer and flour. The tensile and flexural strength of the PLA bio-composites decreased with increasing flour addition. However, a 3% loading of the compatibilizer in the PLA bio-composite increased this strength up to that observed with the 10% loading flour. The degradation temperature of PLA was decreased by the flour but destarched cassava flour had higher thermal stability on account of its higher lignin content than pineapple flour. This means that the PLA bio-composites with destarched cassava flour had higher thermal stability than those with the pineapple flour. In addition, the thermal degradation temperature was increased by adding MAPLA. The compatibilizer improved the crystallinity of PLA, which enhanced the mechanical strength of the PLA bio-composites. As the pineapple flour and destarched cassava flour 30% loading was increased, the HDT of the PLA bio-composites increased from 56.8 °C to ~66.3 and 69.7 °C, respectively. The thermal aging test showed no reduction in strength of the neat PLA. However, the PLA bio-composites showed a gradual decrease in tensile strength with increasing number of cycles. Moreover, the shrinkage ratio of the neat PLA was 5% of that found with the PLA resin.
Authors:Jin-Hong Lee, Joung-Myung Lim, Ki-Hyun Kim, Yong Chung, and Kil-Yong Lee
Instrumental neutron activation analysis was used to measure the concentrations of about 27 elements associated with airborne PM 10 samples that were collected from a roadside sampling station at a moderately polluted urban area of Taejon city, Korea. The magnitude of their concentrations was clearly distinguished and spanned over four orders. If compared in terms of enrichment factors, it was found that certain elements (e.g., As, Br, Cl, Sb, Se, and Zn) are enriched in PM 10 samples of the study site. The factor analysis indicated three factors with statistical significance, which may exert dominant controls on regulating the metal concentration levels in the study area.
Authors:Yinghua Li, Dae-Won Lee, Yoon-Ki Hong, Seong-Min Kim, Hyun-Sik Han, and Kwan-Young Lee
The performances of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) by CO/H2 over two Pd/TiO2/Al2O3 catalysts prepared from PdCl2 and Pd(NO3)2 precursors were compared. The catalytic activities (NOx conversion and N2 yield) were measured on these two catalysts. The catalytic properties of the prepared catalysts were studied by various characterization
techniques such as BET, CO-chemisorption, TEM, XPS, and TPD. The Pd precursors influenced the Pd particle distribution, resulting
in different catalytic activities.
Authors:Saet Byul Kim, Mi Ran Lee, Eun Duck Park, Sang Min Lee, HyoKyu Lee, Ki Hyun Park, and Myung-June Park
A kinetic model of the homogeneous conversion of d-xylose in high temperature water (HTW) was developed. Experimental testing evaluated the effects of operating conditions on xylose conversion and furfural selectivity, with furfural yields of up to 60% observed without the use of acid catalysts. The reaction order for the decomposition of d-xylose was assumed to be above two, while the conversion of d-xylose to furfural and the degradation of furfural were first order reactions. Estimated kinetic parameters were within the range of values reported in the literature. The activation energy of furfural production showed that the ionization rate was high enough for HTW to replace acid catalysts. Simulated results from this model were in good agreement with experimental data, allowing the model to aid reactor design for the maximization of productivity.