Authors:János Haas, Kinga Hips, Pál Pelikán, Norbert Zajzon, Annette E. Götz, and Edit Tardi-Filácz
The Permian/Triassic boundary was recognized in continuous marine successions in several outcrops in the Bükk Mts, North Hungary and in a few core sections in the northeastern part of the Transdanubian Range. In the Bükk Mts, of four studied boundary sections only two proved to be complete. They represent an outer ramp setting. In these sections the topmost Permian is made up of dark gray limestone, rich in fragments of crinoids, calcareous algae, mollusks, brachiopods, ostracods, and foraminifera. There is a dramatic decrease in the amount of the bioclasts in the last two limestone layers, which are overlain by a 1 m-thick shale bed. The lower two-thirds of this bed still contain Permian fauna but its upper part is almost free of bioclasts. The overlying platy limestone contains a pauperized fossil assemblage indicating stress conditions. The two core sections studied in the Transdanubian Range represent an inner ramp setting. The uppermost Permian is made up of lagoonal-sabkha cycles. It is overlain by subtidal packstone-grainstone, rich in Late Permian fossils. Oolitic facies characterizes the boundary interval. Onset of ooid formation was probably the consequence of biotic decline leading to cessation of skeletal carbonate production. Along with oolite beds, stromatolites, micrite with "microspheres" and fine siliciclastic microlayers characterize the basal Triassic succession, reflecting overall stress conditions and the changing energy of the depositional environment.
Authors:Tamás Földes, Gizella B. Árgyelán, Péter Bogner, Imre Repa, Balázs Kiss, and Kinga Hips
This paper summarizes the benefits of non-destructive core measurements by medical Computer Tomograph (CT) in integrated 3D reservoir characterization. A direct relationship exists between CT measurements and petrography, conventional petrophysical analysis and well logs. Based on CT measurements the internal structure of core samples, and the geometry of framework constituents, porosity type and pore size distribution, as well as fracturing, can be described. There is a close connection between distribution of the Hounsfield Unit of CT measurements and pore size distribution detected by conventional petrophysical analysis. Calculation of effective porosity from petroleum saturation experiments provides a new way to determine the porosity of the whole core sample. Beside the description of reservoir parameters, the results of CT measurements can be extended over the surrounding area of the well. By matching the cylinder maps of CT to FMI images and other well logs the original position of the core samples can be reconstructed. Applying high-tech CT measurements in 3D reservoir characterization and modeling of fluid migration significantly reduces the exploration and production risks.