Animal blood is a by-product, which can be utilized in a value-adding way instead of being wasted. Allergen substitution is a good possibility especially for a substance that is difficult to substitute, such as milk. Blood plasma is a fluid with high protein content without blood (iron) taste and colour, so it is similar to milk in several ways. While investigating the substitution of milk, it is advisable to investigate the substitution of sugar as well because a lot of consumers who exclude milk from their diet find the glycaemic index and energy content of foods important. The investigated model food is a simple, homogeneous matrix: vanilla custard with milk and with and without sugar and vanilla custard with blood plasma and with and without sugar. Colour, pH and rheological attributes of custard sample groups were measured. According to the results the used protein source as well as sweetener significantly determine the colour, pH and texture of the final product. However, colour and pH are easy to change with other components (food colours, acidity regulators) and the effect of milk and sugar substitution on rheological attributes might not be possible to detect without instrumental analysis.
Animal blood is a by-product, which can be utilized in a value-adding way instead of being wasted. Allergen substitution is an obvious possibility because many properties of blood plasma are similar to egg white. Techno-functional and sensory attributes (water activity, moisture content, colour and texture related properties) were measured by instrumental methods. The allergenic egg powder can be substituted by non-allergenic blood plasma powder in sponge cakes, but the change in the ingredient has an effect on hardness and tolerating compressive stress until the breaking. In the case of water activity and moisture content, sponge cakes with blood plasma were as desirable as sponge cakes with egg.
The objective of this study was to research the adaptability of insects in food products. The created hamburger patties were made with pork meat and insect batter (Zophobas morio) in a 50:50 ratio and the color, pH value, water-holding capacity, roasting loss, texture, microbiological traits were studied during ten days of refrigerated storage (5 °C, vaccum packaging, air cooling). Similar products have already existed in European markets, but these are made of 100% of insect meat or with additional vegetables as an ingredient. The mixture of insect and pork could offer a more accepted texture by consumers than the other alternatives. This study showed burger patties with pork meat and insect meat offering a softer texture and darker color, while it could increase the shelf-life of raw product.
Blood coagulation is a process, which is initiated by certain physico-chemical effects. This process results in a change in the blood from the sol state, that is well suited for further processing, to gel state. 13 blood clotting factors take part in the cascade system of blood coagulation. Trisodium-citrate affects factor IV, the calcium, and prevents the change in blood texture. The effect of different concentrations of trisodium-citrate (0, 0.48, 2.4, 4.8, 9.6, 14.4, 19.2, 24 w/w%) on the texture of blood is investigated. Porcine blood was collected in 20 cm3 test tubes in a slaughterhouse directly before trisodium-citrate addition and was stored for one day under refrigerated conditions. The samples without trisodium-citrate coagulated and the samples with high trisodium-citrate (4–5 g) became solid as well because of the protein salting-out. The viscosity of successfully treated samples and the shear stress were measured with a rotational viscometer (Physica MCR 51, Anton-Paar) with concentric cylinders and Couette type method. The flow behavior of all samples could be described by the Herschel-Bulkley model. The yield point, the consistency index and the power of law index, which are determined by the equation of the model, showed that the samples with lower trisodium-citrate content coagulated “better” and the sample with high trisodium-citrate were most similar to Newtonian fluid. The results are trend-likes, but significant differences may be expected in the case of higher sample amount. The yield point of the sample, which contained 14.4 w/w% trisodium-citrate, was by 37.3% less than the sample containing 0.48% trisodium-citrate, and the consistency index of the sample with 3 g trisodium-citrate was by 20.5% higher than that of the sample with 0.48% trisodium-citrate. Thanks to these results a cheaper concentration and drying of porcine blood and blood fractions are available because no surplus water is added to the blood.
High hydrostatic pressure (HHP) processing technology offers the possibility to preserve quality attributes. Objective test methods describing quality in a complex form have an important role in the development of new products and in the quality assurance of different technologies. Therefore, research was performed to compare the effects of HHP treatment and heat pasteurization on visual appearance, volatile composition, taste and texture properties of strawberry purees measured by sensorial and objective methods. Sensory evaluation did not show significant differences between samples. Similar result was obtained from the color measurements. Viscosity of purees changed only slightly as a result of the treatments. Electronic nose and electronic tongue were found to be promising tools for discrimination of strawberry purees treated by different levels of high hydrostatic pressure or thermal treatment. Canonical discriminant analysis showed that control and “600 MPa for 5 minutes” samples were quite similar. Samples treated by 600 MPa for 15 minutes were distinguished from the above mentioned ones. The heat treated samples (80°C for 5 and 15 minutes) were definitely separated from the control samples. Fusion of the data from the electronic nose and tongue showed the same trend and improved the classification of the treated puree samples.