Authors:Enikő Fehér, György Lengyel, Ádám Dán, Szilvia Farkas, and Krisztián Bányai
Goose haemorrhagic polyomavirus (GHPV) provoke haemorrhagic nephritis and enteritis of domestic geese. Outbreaks were detected in European countries and caused economic losses for goose keepers. Domestic ducks may be infected with GHPV without any signs typical for geese. The genomic organisation of some isolates was described but the gene functions and the pathomechanisms of the virus was not precisely defined. Here we describe the genome sequence and structure of GHPV of a goose from a Hungarian goose flock showing characteristics of the haemorrhagic nephritis and enteritis. The GHPV genome investigated in this study was 5252 bp long and was very similar (99% nucleotide identity) to sequences deposited in the GenBank. All the whole GHPV genomes possess the same ORFs in length, including the VP1, VP2, VP3, ORF-X, t and T tumour antigens. Amino acid changes are detected mainly in the putative ORF-X region. Data about the GHPV genome imply a conserved genomic structure among isolates from different countries. Genomic and epidemiological studies may help vaccine development efforts and identify potential heterologous reservoirs of GHPV.
Authors:Dorottya Földi, Zsuzsa Kreizinger, Katinka Bekő, Nikolett Belecz, Krisztián Bányai, Krisztián Kiss, Imre Biksi, and Miklós Gyuranecz
The control of Mycoplasma hyorhinis infection relies mainly on antimicrobial therapy. However, the antibiotic susceptibility testing of the bacteria is usually not performed before applying the treatment, and thus therapeutic failures are not uncommon. In the case of M. hyorhinis, several antibiotic-resistance-related single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are known but assays for their detection have not been described yet. The aims of the present study were to investigate macrolide- and lincomycin-resistance-related SNPs in Hungarian M. hyorhinis isolates and to develop mismatch amplification mutation assays (MAMA) to detect the identified resistance markers. Minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of different drugs and whole genome sequences of 37 M. hyorhinis isolates were used to find the resistance-related mutations. One MAMA assay was designed to detect the mutation of the 23S rRNA gene at nucleotide position 2058 (Escherichia coli numbering). For further evaluation, the assay was challenged with 17 additional isolates with available MIC data and 15 DNA samples from clinical specimens. The genotypes of the samples were in line with the MIC test results. The developed assay supports the practice of targeted antibiotic usage; hence it may indirectly reduce some bacterial resistance-related public health concerns.
Authors:János Gál, Míra Mándoki, Endre Sós, Péter Kertész, Viktória Koroknai, Krisztián Bányai, and Szilvia L. Farkas
A male kowari (Dasyuroides byrnei) originating from a zoo facility was delivered for post mortem evaluation in Hungary. Acute lobar pneumonia with histopathologic changes resembling an adenovirus (AdV) infection was detected by light microscopic examination. The presence of an AdV was confirmed by obtaining partial sequence data from the adenoviral DNA-dependent DNA-polymerase. Although the exact taxonomic position of this novel marsupial origin virus could not be determined, pairwise identity analyses and phylogenetic calculations revealed that it is distantly related to other members in the family Adenoviridae.
Authors:Szilvia Marton, Katalin Ihász, György Lengyel, Szilvia Farkas, Ádám Dán, Petra Paulus, Krisztián Bányai, and Enikő Fehér
Circoviruses of pigs and birds are established pathogens, however, the exact role of other, recently described circoviruses and circovirus-like viruses remains to be elucidated. The aim of this study was the detection of circoviruses in neglected host species, including honey bees, exotic reptiles and free-living amoebae by widely used broad-spectrum polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays specific for the replication initiation protein coding gene of these viruses. The majority of sequences obtained from honey bees were highly similar to canine and porcine circoviruses, or, were distantly related to dragonfly cycloviruses. Other rep sequences detected in some honey bees, reptiles and amoebae showed similarities to various rep sequences deposited in the GenBank. Back-to-back PCR primers designed for the amplification of whole viral genomes failed to work that suggested the existence of integrated rep-like elements in many samples. Rolling circle amplification and exonuclease treatment confirmed the absence of small circular DNA genomes in the specimens analysed. In case of honey bees Varroa mite DNA contamination might be a source of the identified endogenous rep-like elements. The reptile and amoebae rep-like sequences were nearly identical with each other and with sequences detected in chimpanzee feces raising the possibility that detection of novel or unusual rep-like elements in some host species might originate from the microbial community of the host. Our results indicate that attention is needed when broad-spectrum rep gene specific polymerase chain reaction is chosen for laboratory diagnosis of circovirus infections.
Authors:Andor Doszpoly, Ákos Hornyák, and Krisztián Bányai
The complete genomic sequence along with phylogenetic analyses of an adenovirus (AdV), isolated from a dead captive pygmy marmoset (Callithrix pygmaea) from a Hungarian zoo is reported. Earlier, based on the phylogenetic analysis of the sequence of a PCR-amplified fragment from the DNA polymerase gene, the pygmy marmoset AdV (PMAdV) has been reported to cluster closest to certain chiropteran AdVs. In the following years similar AdVs were discovered in additional mammalian hosts, including a skunk (Mephitis mephitis), African pygmy hedgehogs (Atelerix albiventris), North American porcupines (Erethizon dorsatum) and grey fox (Urocyon cinereoargenteus). After the full genome analysis of the skunk adenovirus (SkAdV-1), a novel species Skunk mastadenovirus A (SkAdV-A) has been established. The AdVs, originating from the African pygmy hedgehogs, have been found to belong to virus species SkAdV-A. Partial gene sequences from the porcupine AdVs have also implied their very close genetic relatedness to SkAdV-A. The complete genomic sequence of PMAdV, examined in this study, was found to share 99.83% nucleotide identity with SkAdV-1, thus unequivocally represents a genomic variant of SkAdV-1. The observation that viruses classifiable as SkAdV-A are able to infect and cause diseases in several, distantly related mammals seems to deserve further studies to elucidate the infection biology of this intriguing AdV.
Authors:Enikő Fehér, Szilvia Marton, Ádám György Tóth, Krisztina Ursu, Kerstin Wernike, Martin Beer, Ádám Dán, and Krisztián Bányai
Since its emergence near the German–Dutch border in 2011, Schmallenberg virus (SBV) has been identified in many European countries. In this study, we determined the complete coding sequence of seven Hungarian SBV genomes to expand our knowledge about the genetic diversity of circulating field strains. The samples originated from the first case, an aborted cattle fetus without malformation collected in 2012, and from the blood samples of six adult cattle in 2014. The Hungarian SBV sequences shared ≥99.3% nucleotide (nt) and ≥97.8% amino acid (aa) identity with each other, and ≥98.9 nt and ≥96.7% aa identity with reference strains. Although phylogenetic analyses showed low resolution in general, the M sequences of cattle and sheep origin SBV strains seemed to cluster on different branches. Both common and unique mutation sites were observed in different groups of sequences that might help understanding the evolution of emerging SBV strains.
Authors:Hajnalka Papp, Laila Al-Mutairi, Wassim Chehadeh, Szilvia Farkas, György Lengyel, Ferenc Jakab, Vito Martella, György Szűcs, and Krisztián Bányai
In this study a Kuwaiti camel rotavirus strain, RVA/Camel-wt/KUW/s21/2010/G10P, is characterized by sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. The strain had multiple genes with high nucleotide sequence similarities to ovine and bovine strains (VP2, ≤ 96%; NSP2 and NSP5, ≤ 97%, NSP3, ≤ 94%), or, to porcine strains (VP1, ≤ 89%). Other genes had moderate sequence similarities (VP4, ≤ 87%; VP6, ≤ 81%; VP7, ≤ 82%) with reference strains from ruminants. The NSP4 gene shared limited sequence identity (≤ 71%) with other mammalian and avian rotavirus NSP4 types, and was designated a novel genotype, E15. This study demonstrates genetic diversity in the outer capsid and some backbone genes of an old-world camelid rotavirus strain and uncovers its common evolutionary roots with strains from other ruminants.
Authors:Kasos Enikő, Kasos Krisztián, Józsa Emese, Költő András, Bányai Éva, and Varga Katalin
Az aktív-éber hipnózis fontos mérföldkő a hipnózis jelenségének megismerésében: megdöntötte a sokáig uralkodó elméletet, mely szerint a hipnózis az alváshoz hasonló állapot. Mégis viszonylag kevés kutatás foglalkozik a hipnózis aktív formáival, különösen az aktív-éber hipnózis kísérleti vizsgálatával. Tanulmányunk két olyan kutatást foglal össze, amelyben az aktív-éber hipnózis endokrinológiai, elektrodermális és fenomenológiai vonatkozását vizsgáltuk, mindezt az interakciós keret hangsúlyozásával. Az első vizsgálatban – elektrodermális aktivitásváltozások elemzése révén – kimutattuk, hogy míg aktív-éber hipnózisban részt vevő, alacsony hipnábilitású alanyoknál az indukció végén is megmarad a mindennapi éber tudatállapotra jellemző bal féltekei dominancia, addig magas hipnábilitású alanyoknál jobb féltekei túlsúly alakult ki. Ez a mintázat a tudatállapot megfelelő irányú szubjektív módosulásaival is összefügg. A második vizsgálat eredménye, hogy aktív-éber hipnózis mind az alanyok, mind a hipnotizőrök kortizol- és oxitocinszintjét befolyásolhatja, és az endokrin változások erőssége összefügg az alany hipnábilitásával, valamint a módosult tudatállapot fenomenológiájával. Ezek az eredmények beilleszthetők a hipnózis interakciós szemléleti keretébe, és alátámasztják az aktív-éber hipnózis jótékony terápiás hatásait.
Authors:Szilvia Marton, Krisztián Bányai, Barbara Forró, György Lengyel, Csaba Székely, Ádám Varga, and Kálmán Molnár
Balantidium ctenopharyngodoni is a common ciliate in Hungary, infecting the hindgut of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella), a cyprinid fish of Chinese origin. Although data have already been presented on its occasional pathogenic effect on the endothelium of the host, generally it is a harmless inhabitant of the gut. Phylogenetic analysis of the 18S rDNA and ITS fragments of this protozoan proved that it is in the closest phylogenetic relationship with endocommensalist and symbiont ciliates of mammals feeding on large volumes of green forage, in a similar way as Balantidium spp. known from algae-eating marine fishes.
Authors:Ádám Bálint, István Kiss, Krisztián Bányai, Imre Biksi, Katalin Szentpáli-Gavallér, Tibor Magyar, István Jankovics, Mónika Rózsa, Bálint Szalai, Mária Takács, Ádám Tóth, and Ádám Dán
In 2010, two novel porcine H1N1 influenza viruses were isolated from pigs with influenza-like illness in Hungarian swine herds. Sequence and phylogenetic analysis of these strains revealed that they shared molecular features with the pandemic H1N1 influenza virus strains, which emerged globally during 2009. The PB2, HA and NA genes contained unique amino acid changes compared to the available new H1N1 influenza virus sequences of pig origin. Furthermore, the investigated strains could be separated with respect to parallel amino acid substitutions affecting the polymerase genes (PB2, PB1 and PA) and the nucleoprotein (NP) gene, supporting the proposed complementarities between these proteins, all required for the viral fitness. Molecular characterisation of two Hungarian human pandemic H1N1 isolates was also performed, so that we could compare contemporaneous strains of different host species origins. Shared molecular motifs in various genes of animal and human influenza strains suggested that the Hungarian porcine strains could have originated from humans through direct interspecies transmission. This study is among the few that support the natural human-to-pig transmission of the pandemic H1N1 influenza virus.