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Kinetics of ochratoxin A production was examined in a number of ochratoxin producing isolates representing different sections of the Aspergillus genus. Both weak and high ochratoxin producers were tested using immunochemical or high-performance liquid chromatograhic methods. All isolates were found to produce the highest amounts of ochratoxin A after 7-10 days of incubation. Ochratoxin production varied between 30 - 5×105 ng ml-1 among the Aspergillus isolates tested. The A. albertensis and A. melleus isolates examined were found to produce ochratoxin A constitutively. A. albertensis produced the highest amounts of ochratoxin A at 30 °C after 7 days' incubation in YES liquid medium. Ergosterol content and ochratoxin production of A. albertensis cultures were in good correlation.

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Orvosi Hetilap
Authors: Péter Lukovich, Noémi Csibi, Réka Brubel, Krisztina Tari, Szilvia Csuka, László Harsányi, János Rigó Jr., and Attila Bokor

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Bevezetés és célkitűzés: A colorectalis rendszert érintő endometriosis ellátása multidiszciplináris laparoszkópos teammel javasolt. A bélinfiltráció preoperatív felismerése ehhez elengedhetetlen. Betegek és módszer: 2009–2015 között prospektíven 383, endometriosissal diagnosztizált betegnél történt sigmoideoscopia. Intraluminalis endometriosis, fali infiltrációra jellemző másodlagos jelek (falmerevség, benyomat, megtöretés, vizsgálat alatti fájdalom, suffusio) kerültek feldolgozásra. Műtéti indikáció esetén a pozitív esetek multidiszciplináris, a negatív esetek nőgyógyász által végzett műtéten estek át. Eredmények: 224 (58,49%) pozitívnak talált beteg közül 108-nál multidiszciplináris műtét történt, a negatívnak bizonyult esetek közül 135 ginekológiai műtéten esett át. 108-ból 103 betegnél a műtét során is igazolódott a bél érintettsége, míg a negatív esetek közül nyolc esetben volt jelentős bélinfiltráció. Teljes sigmoideoscopiás vizsgálat 43,4%-ban volt kivitelezhető. Intraluminalis endometriosis 4,91%-ban, fali merevség 38,39%-ban, benyomat 45,54%-ban, megtöretés 57,14%-ban, fájdalom (narkózis nélkül végzett vizsgálatoknál) 26,06%-ban, suffusio 3,82%-ban fordult elő. A sigmoideoscopia szenzitivitása: 92,8%, specificitása: 96,2% volt. Következtetés: A sigmoideoscopia – tapasztalt endoszkópos esetében – kiemelkedő szenzitivitású eszköz a belet infiltráló endometriosis igazolásában. Orv. Hetil., 2017, 158(7), 264–269.

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The 2006 epidemic due to highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) subtype H5N1 in Hungary caused the most severe losses in waterfowl which were, according to the literature at the time, supposed to be the most resistant to this pathogen. The presence of pathological lesions and the amount of viral antigen were quantified by gross pathology, histopathology and immunohistochemistry (IHC) in the organs of four waterfowl species [mute swans (n = 10), domestic geese (n = 6), mulard ducks (n = 6) and Pekin ducks (n = 5)] collected during the epidemic. H5N1 subtype HPAIV was isolated from all birds examined. Quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (qRRT-PCR) was also applied on a subset of samples [domestic geese (n = 3), mulard (n = 4) and Pekin duck (n = 4)] in order to compare its sensitivity with IHC. Viral antigen was detected by IHC in all cases. However, the overall presence of viral antigen in tissue samples was quite variable: virus antigen was present in 56/81 (69%) swan, 22/38 (58%) goose, 28/46 (61%) mulard duck and 5/43 (12%) Pekin duck tissue samples. HPAIV subtype H5N1 was detected by qRRT-PCR in all birds examined, in 19/19 (100%) goose, 7/28 (25%) mulard duck and 12/28 (43%) Pekin duck tissue samples. As compared to qRRTPCR, the IHC was less sensitive in geese and Pekin ducks but more sensitive in mulard ducks. The IHC was consistently positive above 4.31 log10 copies/reaction but it gave very variable results below that level. Neurotropism of the isolated virus strains was demonstrated by finding the largest amount of viral antigen and the highest average RNA load in the brain in all four waterfowl species examined.

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