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Abstract  

In this work, a Monte Carlo (MC) simulation model is established to accurately characterize a phoswich beta-gamma coincidence detector system. This model can be easily used to predict the beta-gamma coincidence efficiencies of xenon radioisotopes at various stable xenon concentrations in the counting cell. The results demonstrate that there is a significant inverse correlation between beta-gamma coincidence efficiency and stable xenon concentration. The influence of stable xenon concentration on beta-gamma coincidence counting efficiency has been investigated for each individual xenon radioisotope. The results indicate that the effect of stable xenon concentration on beta-gamma coincidence efficiency depends on the xenon radioisotope and its decay modes. The coincidence efficiency of 133Xe with 31.0-keV X-ray decay mode is the most affected one; and then followed by 131mXe, 133Xe with 81.0-keV gamma-ray decay mode, 133mXe and finally 135Xe. The study also indicates that the gamma absorption by xenon gas plays more of a role in the decrease of beta-gamma coincidence efficiency for 133Xe and 135Xe, and that the conversion electron spectrum shifting and broadening plays more of a role in the reduction of beta-gamma coincidence efficiency for the metastable radioxenon of 131mXe and 133mXe.

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Abstract  

This paper describes a Monte Carlo (MC) simulation method for calculating radioxenon beta-gamma coincidence spectral information. These spectral components include detector response simulations by Geant4 modeling, detector energy and resolution calibrations using the histograms of detector response, beta-gamma coincidence efficiency values and spectral interference ratios. The work presented in this paper demonstrates the feasibility of using the spectral information to create beta-gamma coincidence spectra at various radioxenon activity concentrations. The analysis of these synthetic spectra by XECON software shows an excellent correlation between the analysed radioxenon activity concentration and number of MC samplings.

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Abstract  

To support interpretation of observed atmospheric krypton radioisotopes, a database of krypton radioisotope in the primary coolant of CANDU reactors has been established. This database is comprised of 40,000 records of high-quality 89Kr, 87Kr, 88Kr and 85mKr analyses. Records from the database were retrieved by a specifically designed data-mining module and subjected to further analysis. Results from the analysis were subsequently used to study isotopic ratios of observed krypton radioisotopes in the CANDU reactor primary coolant. These studies provided practical information on the characterization of CANDU reactor krypton radioisotope, which can potentially be used to discriminate between reactor effluent and fuel reprocessing for nuclear safeguard 85Kr monitoring applications (Kalinowski et al., J Environ Radioact 73:203, 2004). The study also has some potential application to Fissile material cut-off treaty.

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Abstract  

The study demonstrates the advantages of an innovative list-mode multispectral data acquisition system that allows simultaneous creation of several different single, summed, coincident and anticoincident spectra with a single measurement. One of the consequences of list-mode data file offline processing is a reconstructed spectrum with Compton continuum suppression and without any full-energy peak efficiency deduction owing to true coincidence summing. The spectrometer is designed to read out analogue signal from preamplifier of gamma-ray detectors and to digitalize it using DGF/Pixie-4 software and card package (XIA LLC). This is realized by converting an Ortec Compton suppression data acquisition system into an all-digital spectrometer. Instead of using its timing electronic chain to determine the coincidence event, the analog signals from primary and guard detectors were connected directly into the Pixie-4 card for pulse height and time coincident measurement by individually logging and time stamping each electronic pulse. The data acquired in list-mode included coincidence and anticoincidence events consisting of records of energy and timestamp from primary and guard detectors. Every event was stored in a text file for offline processing and spectral reconstruction. A sophisticated computer simulation was also created with the goals of obtaining a better understanding of the experimental results and calculating efficiency.

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Abstract  

This paper reports on initial efforts for uranium isotopic analysis using gamma-rays and X-ray fluorescence coincidence. In this study, a gamma–gamma coincidence spectrometry was developed. The spectrometry consists of two NaI(Tl) scintillators and XIA LLC Digital Gamma Finder (DGF)/Pixie-4 software and card package. The developed spectrometry was optimized according to the considerations of output count rate and gamma peak energy resolution. It has been demonstrated that the spectrometry provides an effective method of assessing the content of uranium isotopes for nuclear materials. The main advantages of this approach over the conventional gamma spectrometry include the fact that 235U enrichment can be graphically characterized by its unique coincidence “fingerprints”. The method could be further developed for fast uranium isotope verification with an established gamma–gamma coincidence spectral imaging library by various nuclear materials.

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Abstract  

Based on the Linssi database and UniSampo/Shaman software, an automated analysis platform has been setup for the analysis of large amounts of gamma-spectra from the primary coolant monitoring systems of a CANDU reactor. Thus, a database inventory of gaseous and volatile fission products in the primary coolant of a CANDU reactor has been established. This database is comprised of 15,000 spectra of radioisotope analysis records. Records from the database inventory were retrieved by a specifically designed data-mining module and subjected to further analysis. Results from the analysis were subsequently used to identify the reactor coolant half-life of 135Xe and 133Xe, as well as the correlations of 135Xe and 88Kr activities.

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Abstract  

In this study, a gamma–gamma coincidence spectrometry was developed and examined for environmental low-level cosmogenic 22Na monitoring purposes. The spectrometry consists of two bismuth germanate scintillators (BGO) and XIA LLC Digital Gamma Finder (DGF)/Pixie-4 software and card package. The developed spectrometry was optimized according to the considerations of output count rate and gamma peak energy resolution. This spectrometry provides a more sensitive and effective way to quantify even trace amounts of 22Na with critical detection limit of 9 mBq. A sophisticated computer simulation was also created with the goal of obtaining a better understanding of the experimental results and gamma–gamma coincidence efficiencies at different sample geometries.

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Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry
Authors: Ian Hoffman, Kurt Ungar, Marc Bean, Jing Yi, René Servranckx, Calin Zaganescu, Nils Ek, Xavier Blanchard, Gilbert Le Petit, Guy Brachet, Pascal Achim, and Thomas Taffary

Abstract  

Radioxenon concentration data collected at International Noble Gas Experiment (INGE) monitoring sites in the Northern Hemisphere are demonstrably impacted by emissions from medical isotope (MI) production facilities at Chalk River (CRL), Ontario and Fleurus, Belgium [Saey, J Environ Radioact 100(5):396–406, 2009]. Temporary cessation at these European MI facilities in the latter half of 2008 allowed an opportunity to assess the relative impact of distant MI facilities at INGE monitoring stations. In particular, the concentration distributions at the measurement sites and calculated sensitivities to the putative emission locations through atmospheric transport modelling (ATM) of meteorological Source Receptor Sensitivity (SRS) computations were used to study MI impacts.

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