This work investigates the sorption of americium [Am(III)] onto kaolinite and the influence of humic acid (HA) as a function
of pH (3–11). It has been studied by batch experiments (V/m = 250:1 mL/g, CAm(III) = 1 × 10−5 mol/L, CHA = 50 mg/L). Results showed that the Am(III) sorption onto the kaolinite in the absence of HA was typical, showing increases
with pH and a distinct adsorption edge at pH 3–5. However in the presence of HA, Am sorption to kaolinite was significantly
affected. HA was shown to enhance Am sorption in the acidic pH range (pH 3–4) due to the formation of additional binding sites
for Am coming from HA adsorbed onto kaolinite surface, but reduce Am sorption in the intermediate and high pH above 6 due
to the formation of aqueous Am-humate complexes. The results on the ternary interaction of kaolinite–Am–HA are compared with
those on the binary system of kaolinite–HA and kaolinite–Am and adsorption mechanism with pH are discussed. Effect of different
molecular weight of HA, with three HA fractions separated by ultrafiltration techniques, on the Am sorption to kaolinite were
also studied. The results showed that the enhancement of the sorption of Am onto kaolinite at the acidic pH conditions (pH
3–4) was higher with HA fractions of higher molecular weight. Also, the Am sorption over a pH range from 6 to 10 decreased
with decreasing molecular weight of HA.
Authors:KwangHee Hong, KyuSeok Song, HyungKi Cha, Mo Yang, JongMin Lee, ChangWo Lee, and GaeHo Lee
The detection of radiocesium in microparticles was performed by using an ion trap mass spectrometer coupled with laser desorption
and ionization. Pulsed laser desorbed particle and the resulted ions were analyzed by an ion trap mass analyzer. The presence
of radiocesium, especially about137Cs, in microparticles was verified by single as well as successive particle analysis. The detection limit was reached to ≈ag/particle
level with a signal-to-background ratio of 4. The inhomogeneous distribution of particle size and the irregular shapes of
particle limit the quantitative evaluation of137Cs concentration in the microparticle. But this high sensitivity allows to monitor directly the radiocesium from small amounts
of a microparticle sample.
Authors:Hong-Joo Ahn, Myung-Ho Lee, Se-Chul Sohn, Kwang Jee, and Kyuseok Song
In order to evaluate radionuclide inventories as an essential item for the permanent disposal of spent fuel storage racks,
chemical conditions for a sample pretreatment of a spent fuel storage rack were studied. Especially, the surface microstructure
and the radionuclide distributions for the spent fuel storage rack were investigated by using a SEM–EDX and γ-spectrometer
for minimizing the matrix effect which could affect a chemical separation process of some β-emitting radionuclides. The samples
were pretreated with a mixed solution of 5 M HCl and 2 M HNO3 by an ultrasonic surface leaching method. Some radionuclides in the raw racks showed the radioactivity of 102–103 Bq for about 10 g of sample weight. From the sample pretreatment, it was confirmed that almost all radionuclides in the rack
were completely extracted from the rack when the dissolved thickness of the rack became a maximum 15 μm by the ultrasonic
surface leaching method. The established pretreatment method was applied for all spent fuel storage rack generated from Korean
NPPs to determine the scaling factor. The radioactivities of 60Co and 137Cs radionuclides in the pretreated solutions were in the range of 4.9E−1~1.5E+2 and 1.2E−1~9.0E+0 Bq/g, respectively.
Authors:Chang Lee, Myung Lee, Sun Han, Yeoung-Keong Ha, and Kyuseok-Song
A simple and rapid separation procedure was systemized for the determination of 99Tc, 90Sr, 94Nb, 55Fe and 59,63Ni in low and intermediate level radioactive wastes. The integrated procedure involves precipitation, anion exchange and extraction
chromatography for the separation and purification of individual radionuclide from sample matrix elements and from other radionuclides.
After separating Re (as a surrogate of 99Tc) on an anion change resin column, Sr, Nb, Fe and Ni were sequentially separated as follows; Sr was separated as Sr (Ca-oxalate)
co-precipitates from Nb, Fe and Ni followed by purification using Sr-Spec extraction chromatographic resin. Nb was separated
from Fe and Ni by anion exchange chromatography. Fe was separated from Ni by anion exchange chromatography. Ni was separated
as Ni-dimethylglyoxime precipitates after the removal of 134,137Cs and 110mAg by Cs-phosphotungstate and AgCl precipitation, respectively. Finally, the radionuclide sources were prepared by precipitation
for their radioactivity measurements. The reliability of the procedure was evaluated by measuring the recovery of chemical
carriers added to a synthetic radioactive waste solution.
Authors:Jong-Goo Kim, Yang-Soon Park, Yeong-Keong Ha, and Kyuseok Song
The applicability of ATR-FTIR for the determination of the HDO content in heavy water (D2O) was investigated. Two groups of calibration standard solutions, of low contents (0–1 n% H2O in heavy water) and of higher contents (0–10 n% H2O in heavy water) were prepared by adding properly calculated amount of H2O to D2O by weight. The absorbances at 3400 cm−1 (ν, O–H) against the calibration standards were measured five times using two kinds of interchangeable IREs (1 bound and
9 bound reflections). And four calibration curves were obtained by linear least square fit of the measured absorbances for
the four different measurement conditions, which are (1) for low contents group using 1 bound reflection, (2) for low contents
group using 9 bound reflections, (3) for higher contents group using 1 bound reflection, (4) for higher contents group using
9 bound reflections. Determined contents (c0) of each calibration standards for the four measurement conditions were obtained by the calibration curves and compared to
the calculated contents (ccal). The uncertainty sources were considered when the HDO in heavy water is determined according to the procedure of this work.
The uncertainties u(c0) of the determined contents (c0) for the four different measurement conditions were calculated.