The west to east oriented graves of an Early Avar period cemetery came to light at Szihalom-Budaszög in 1996. Two clay mugs turned on a fast wheel bespeak local Gepidic ceramic traditions. A wooden amulet capsule can likewise be linked to Pannonian and Transylvanian communities with a Merovingian culture. The gold and gilt bronze mounts of the capsule suggest the burial of an individual from the community’s elite. The gold mounts of the capsule are decorated with four masks arranged in a cross-like design. The stylistic and iconographic parallels to the masks point towards Italy and the regions north of the Alps. The capsule provides evidence for syncretic beliefs: the amulet was probably believed to have both pagan magical and Christian protective properties. The small cemetery was used by a local Gepidic community with good contacts with Western Europe living under the overlordship of the Avar Khaganate.
A total of 255 Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae isolates were collected from 634 lung samples representing 70 swine herds in Hungary between January 2012 and June 2016. On the basis of the indirect haemagglutination test 77 independent strains were included in the evaluation after the elimination of duplicate or multiple serotypes from the same herd. In the case of 7 herds strains of two different serotypes were identified. Fourteen Hungarian A. pleuropneumoniae isolates from the culture collection of the Department of Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, isolated before 2012, were also included in the evaluation (one each from 12 herds and two each from two herds, where two serotypes occurred). Out of the altogether 91 A. pleuropneumoniae strains 72 strains belonged to biotype I and 19 strains could be allocated to biotype II. In Hungary, the most common serotypes were serotype 2 (39.5%), 13 (15.4%), 8 (8.8%) and 16 (8.8%), but serotypes 9 (5.5%), 11 (3.3%) and 12 (3.3%) were also isolated. Twelve strains (13.2%) were untypable.
Sixty-eight Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae strains were isolated from porcine acute pleuropneumonia cases from different parts of Hungary between 2000 and 2014. A total of 41 isolates were identified as A. pleuropneumoniae bio-type I and 27 strains as biotype II based on cultural, morphological and biochemical characteristics. The aim of this study was to evaluate metabolic fingerprinting in the species-level identification of A. pleuropneumoniae isolates. Utilisation of carbon sources by these field isolates and six reference strains was characterised by the Biolog system (GN2 Microplate, MicroLog3 Version 4.20.05 software). Twenty-nine field strains were correctly identified by the Biolog system as A. pleuropneumoniae, 36 strains as A. lignieresii, two strains as H. paraphrohaemolyticus and one strain as A. equuli after 24 h of incubation. Among the six A. pleuropneumoniae reference strains the Biolog system identified one strain as A. pleuropneumoniae, four as A. lignieresii and one as H. paraphrohaemolyticus. There was no correlation between biotypes and serotypes of A. pleuropneumoniae and the carbon source utilisation pattern and species identification by the Biolog system. our data indicate that the efficacy of the Biolog system used here could be improved by including phenotypes of more A. pleuropneumoniae strains representing a wider geographical occurrence into the database.
A total of 860 serum samples collected at 86 cattle farms in different parts of Hungary were screened for the presence of antibodies to Mycoplasma bovis using an ELISA test with a recombinant M. bovis membrane protein as antigen. Antibodies to M. bovis were detected in sera collected on all farms, and no farms negative for M. bovis were found. In 88.38% of the herds more than 50% of the sampled animals were infected by M. bovis. A total of 82.91% of the animals had antibodies to M. bovis. The proportion of seropositive animals was higher in the older age groups, and a significant difference was seen in the level of seropositivity between young and older age groups. The results show that M. bovis infection is widespread on Hungarian dairy farms, and its prevalence has increased in the recent decade. The high infection rate of Hungarian cattle herds with M. bovis shows that special attention should be paid to evaluating the aetiological role of M. bovis in bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC) cases because M. bovis has an immunosuppressive effect and can predispose cattle to other respiratory infections, too.
Five Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae strains isolated from pathological lesions of porcine pleuropneumonia in Hungary could not be assigned to any of the accepted 15 serovars. Using hyperimmune serum raised against these unty-pable-serovar A. pleuropneumoniae strains in rabbits, indirect haemagglutination tests proved that they form a distinct group and there is no cross-reaction between them and the type strains of A. pleuropneumoniae. All five strains harboured the toxin-associated genes for the production (apxIA) and secretion (apxIB) of ApxI, the gene for the expression of ApxII and the largest-size (2800 bp) apxIV gene. The carbon source utilisation pattern and the sequence analysis of the 16S rRNA gene confirmed the species identification of the suggested type strain, A. pleuropneumoniae A-85/14. A new serovar of A. pleuropneumoniae — serovar 16 — is proposed with A. pleuropneumoniae A-85/14 as reference strain.