Authors:Emna Ayari, Csaba Németh, Karina Ilona Hidas, Adrienn Tóth, Dávid Láng, and László Friedrich
Starting from mechanical revolution, each day new methods and new equipment have emerged. Today, the Ultra Heat Treatment (UHT) is one of the important technologies that permits to the industry to reduce processing time while maintaining the same quality of the products. Egg and egg products are known as heat-sensitive products, so the UHT enables us to preserve their qualities after a heat treatment.
Our aim is to study the effect of UHT treatment (approximately 67 °C for 190 s) on the Liquid Egg Yolk (LEY). For twenty-one days, the color and the apparent viscosity were measured every seven days, we also studied the damage of protein using DSC (Differential Scanning Calorimetry).
Comparing the two graphs of DSC, the denaturation of protein is distinct. The endothermic peak decreased. This could be seen also on the rheological curves. The apparent viscosity is diminished from 231 mPa.s on the 1st day of storage to 224 mPa.s on 21st day. However, the treated LEY could be stored for longer period than the raw LEY.
Authors:Tivadar Hüttl, Imre Kassai, István Hartyánszky, László Daróczi, Orsolya Friedrich, Katalin Széphelyi, and Zoltán Szabolcs
Felkartörések ellátásánál használt tűződrótok dislocatióját és elvándorlását találták az első kontrollvizsgálaton mindössze 13 nappal a traumatológiai ellátást követően. Észleléskor az egyik tűződrót a lateralis mellkasfal izomzatában helyezkedett el, míg a másik, hegyével a szívcsúcs izomzatába fúródva, a szívkontrakciókkal szinkron mozgott. Eltávolításukra szívsebészeti műtőben, bal oldali anterolateralis thoracotomiából került sor.
Authors:Adrienn Tóth, Csaba Németh, Ildikó Zeke, Annamária Barkói, Karina Hidas, and László Friedrich
Minimal processing technologies, like High Hydrostatic Pressure (HHP), heat treatments at low temperatures have an increasing role in food industry. Eggs are considered as functional foods, but for high retention of biological active compounds adequate minimal processing technologies are needed during preservation procedure. In our study, liquid egg yolk (LEY) was examined to meet consumer's expectations.
Combinations of pasteurization (57–63 °C, 5–7 min) and HHP (350–400 MPa, 5 min) were used to provide microbiological stability of LEY. After these treatments samples were examined for mesophyll aerobes and Enterobacteriaceae cell counts (using Nutrient agar an incubation of 30 °C, 48 h) and viscosity attributes (Anton Paar MCR 92).
Our results show that microbiological stability is significantly influenced by the different parameters of heat treatments and HHP. Heat treatment effected at least 3 orders of magnitude decrease in cell count. Viscosity attributes point out that higher pressure of HHP have a stronger effect on viscosity than the temperature of pasteurization.
The results point out a great opportunity for industrial use of minimal processing technologies for LEY. Microbiological safety is strongly influenced by the order of treatments, but viscosity may be independent from the order of the treatments.
Authors:Tamás Csurka, Klára Pásztor-Huszár, Adrienn Tóth, Richárd Pintér, and László Ferenc Friedrich
Blood coagulation is a process, which is initiated by certain physico-chemical effects. This process results in a change in the blood from the sol state, that is well suited for further processing, to gel state. 13 blood clotting factors take part in the cascade system of blood coagulation. Trisodium-citrate affects factor IV, the calcium, and prevents the change in blood texture. The effect of different concentrations of trisodium-citrate (0, 0.48, 2.4, 4.8, 9.6, 14.4, 19.2, 24 w/w%) on the texture of blood is investigated. Porcine blood was collected in 20 cm3 test tubes in a slaughterhouse directly before trisodium-citrate addition and was stored for one day under refrigerated conditions. The samples without trisodium-citrate coagulated and the samples with high trisodium-citrate (4–5 g) became solid as well because of the protein salting-out. The viscosity of successfully treated samples and the shear stress were measured with a rotational viscometer (Physica MCR 51, Anton-Paar) with concentric cylinders and Couette type method. The flow behavior of all samples could be described by the Herschel-Bulkley model. The yield point, the consistency index and the power of law index, which are determined by the equation of the model, showed that the samples with lower trisodium-citrate content coagulated “better” and the sample with high trisodium-citrate were most similar to Newtonian fluid. The results are trend-likes, but significant differences may be expected in the case of higher sample amount. The yield point of the sample, which contained 14.4 w/w% trisodium-citrate, was by 37.3% less than the sample containing 0.48% trisodium-citrate, and the consistency index of the sample with 3 g trisodium-citrate was by 20.5% higher than that of the sample with 0.48% trisodium-citrate. Thanks to these results a cheaper concentration and drying of porcine blood and blood fractions are available because no surplus water is added to the blood.
Authors:Anna Visy, Karina Ilona Hidas, József Surányi, Gábor Jónás, and László Friedrich
Excessive consumption of salt causes many diseases, including high blood pressure and cardiovascular system disease. In most countries, salt intake is above the WHO guideline daily intake. In Hungary, the average salt intake is more than double the recommended value. Based on these, significant changes are needed in food technology and recipes. To avoid excessive salt intake Hungary has joined the European Union's community program for salt reduction.
The aim of this study was to compare the salt content in different areas of Mangalitsa ham during the dry salting, and compare the average salt content with the regulations of the Codex Alimentarius Hungaricus. The ham was dry salted with 10% by weight of the meat and placed in a controlled atmosphere storage room. The curing took 21 days. The NaCl uptake was measured with Mohr method. The ham was cut at 3 points Cushion (C), Fore Cushion (FC) and Butt End (BE). The salt content of BE was generally higher than the other two areas (C, FC). The differences can be explained by the difference in the thickness of the pieces of meat and fat. The average salt content of the different areas did not exceed the threshold limit in the Codex Alimentarius Hungaricus. At the beginning of the experiment, the salt content of each meat layer was very different, the absorbed salt was concentrated in the surface layer. Over time, as the ham lost a lot of water and due to the lack of outer salt, a significant increase in salt content began in the meat centrum. By day 80, the salt content of the meat centrum exceeded the salt content of both the fat and the surface layer.
Authors:Tamás Csurka, Fanni Szücs, Barbara Csehi, László Ferenc Friedrich, and Klára Pásztor-Huszár
Animal blood is a by-product, which can be utilized in a value-adding way instead of being wasted. Allergen substitution is an obvious possibility because many properties of blood plasma are similar to egg white. Techno-functional and sensory attributes (water activity, moisture content, colour and texture related properties) were measured by instrumental methods. The allergenic egg powder can be substituted by non-allergenic blood plasma powder in sponge cakes, but the change in the ingredient has an effect on hardness and tolerating compressive stress until the breaking. In the case of water activity and moisture content, sponge cakes with blood plasma were as desirable as sponge cakes with egg.
Authors:Richard Pinter, Evelin Molnar, Khabat N. Hussein, Adrienn Toth, Laszlo Friedrich, and Klara Pasztor-Huszar
The objective of this study was to research the adaptability of insects in food products. The created hamburger patties were made with pork meat and insect batter (Zophobas morio) in a 50:50 ratio and the color, pH value, water-holding capacity, roasting loss, texture, microbiological traits were studied during ten days of refrigerated storage (5 °C, vaccum packaging, air cooling). Similar products have already existed in European markets, but these are made of 100% of insect meat or with additional vegetables as an ingredient. The mixture of insect and pork could offer a more accepted texture by consumers than the other alternatives. This study showed burger patties with pork meat and insect meat offering a softer texture and darker color, while it could increase the shelf-life of raw product.
Authors:Tamás Csurka, Fanni Szücs, Barbara Csehi, László Ferenc Friedrich, and Klára Pásztor-Huszár
Animal blood is a by-product, which can be utilized in a value-adding way instead of being wasted. Allergen substitution is a good possibility especially for a substance that is difficult to substitute, such as milk. Blood plasma is a fluid with high protein content without blood (iron) taste and colour, so it is similar to milk in several ways. While investigating the substitution of milk, it is advisable to investigate the substitution of sugar as well because a lot of consumers who exclude milk from their diet find the glycaemic index and energy content of foods important. The investigated model food is a simple, homogeneous matrix: vanilla custard with milk and with and without sugar and vanilla custard with blood plasma and with and without sugar. Colour, pH and rheological attributes of custard sample groups were measured. According to the results the used protein source as well as sweetener significantly determine the colour, pH and texture of the final product. However, colour and pH are easy to change with other components (food colours, acidity regulators) and the effect of milk and sugar substitution on rheological attributes might not be possible to detect without instrumental analysis.
Authors:Karina Ilona Hidas, Csaba Németh, Lien Phuong Le Nguyen, Anna Visy, Adrienn Tóth, László Friedrich, and Ildikó Csilla Nyulas-Zeke
Freezing can enhance the storage time of liquid egg products, but egg yolk undergoes an irreversible textural and structural change when it is cooled to –6 °C. In this study, the effects of different salt concentrations on the physical properties of frozen-thawed egg yolk were investigated.
The pasteurised liquid egg yolk (LEY) was treated with 4, 5, and 6% of NaCl before freezing and it was stored at –18 °C for 4 weeks. The colour, pH, and rheological characteristics (firmness, consistency, cohesiveness, and index of viscosity) of yolk samples were evaluated before and after freezing.
Salt treatment resulted in preventing gelation, with decreasing firmness, consistency and viscosity compared to control samples. The pH of all yolk samples increased during frozen storage. The lightness value decreased in treated samples and increased in the control sample after freezing.
The results indicated that the applied salt concentrations could inhibit protein aggregation of LEY induced by freezing during the storage period. At least 5% salt concentration could reduce effectively the changes in rheological properties.
Authors:Mai Sao Dam, Lien Le Phuong Nguyen, Tamás Zsom, Géza Hitka, Ildikó Csilla Zeke, and László Friedrich
The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of packaging perforation on quality of carrot slices during cold storage at 5 °C. Polyethylene bags with different number of perforations (3, 4, and 6) were used in this experiment. Headspace oxygen concentration, respiration, weight loss, surface color, firmness, pH, and soluble solid content were examined throughout storage. It was observed, that all the investigated packaging were effective in maintaining the quality of carrot slices compared to the control. There was no symptom of decay until 12 days. In addition, pH, soluble solid content, and firmness showed nonsignificant change. Moreover, weight loss of packed carrot slices was below 2% after 12 days of storage. Packed carrot had better appearance at the end of experiment (12 days) than that of control.