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  • Author or Editor: László Lengyel x
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Abstract

The paper is concerned with a 17th century relic of French baroque painting meagerly represented in Hungarian private collections. The author has had a chance lately to directly examine the work known to Hungarian special researchers since 1966 as a work by a Spanish or French painter. As a result of the examination, the painter, the portrayed person and the client who ordered the picture could be identified. As the decoding of the that-time inscription on the back reveals, it was painted in 1676 by Carlo (Charles) Palme, an offspring of a dynasty of Lucchese painters born in Aix-en-Provence. The owner of both the painting and the portrayed person was an aristocratic lady in Aix-en-Provence, Madame de Venel born Madeleine de Gaillard de Longjumeau (1620–1688), who became known as the governess of Cardinal Mazarin's nieces Les Mazarinettes (the Mancini girls) as well as of the children of Louis XIV and the future king of Spain Philip V of the Bourbon house. The lady and her husband, Gaspard de Venel were among Mazarin's supporters. They served in the court of the queen mother Anne of Austria, then of Maria Theresa of Spain and her husband the Sun King. The full-length portrait of Raimond, the violinist with dwarfism set in a Provencale landscape is a rare artistic document of the centuries-old custom of keeping little people for entertainment at the French court, too. The wife of Louis XIV is known to have kept several dwarfs around her. The childless Madame de Venel, her lady-in-waiting had Raimond, and her husband also had a dwarf whose portrait is said by the sources to have also been painted, this time by another well-known Provencale painter Laurent Fauchier before 1672. This – now latent – painting had been kept tabs on in the collection of Madame de Venel's heirs (de Gaillard-Longjumeau line) until 1770 (in the inventory taken on 20 September 1770 it is designated: Tableaux: No. 3. Le nain de Monsieur de Venel). The Budapest painting helps clarify the relation between 17th century Provencale portraiture and the social role little people with dwarfism played in 17th century French society. The professional collaboration and the family relations of the two painter families of Aix, the Palmes and the Fauchiers, as well as their relationship with their patrons the Venel family can be discerned. But the career of another dwarf of Provence, Antoine Godeau (1605–1672), nicknamed “Le Nain de Julie”, “Le Nain de la Princesse”, a once celebrated poet, one of the founders of the French Academy, later bishop of Grasse and then Vence, proves that an achondroplasiatic body stature did not necessarily hinder social success. The Venel family who kept two dwarfs and had them portrayed by local masters chose a motto for the picturesque decoration of their residence in Aix from the love poetry of the dwarf poet: “Allez amours, à tire d'aile”. The up-to-date elaboration of the Aix portrait painter Carlo Palme is still a task to be done, but the portrait of Raimond, the dwarf of Madame de Venel dated 1676 now in Hungary can be ranged among the early pieces in his oeuvre.

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Review of Sociology
Authors: György Lengyel, László Lőrincz, Viktória Siklós and Dániel Füleki

The study investigates the digital divide concerning computer literacy in Hungary. It examines the differences of computer literacy of people with different social-demographic characteristics (gender, settlement type, education, labor market presence and income). It also investigates the intentions to learn computer skills. In this respect, smaller differences have been found then in the case of actual knowledge, which predicts the narrowing down of digital divide in the future. An attempt has been made to identify the institutional, technical and primordial conditions in everyday life that may influence both computer literacy and inclination to master the computer, and hence may function as “bridges” over the digital divide. Four of these factors have been studied: access to computers at the workplace, public internet access at the settlement, communication via cellular phone and effect of the family members' ITC knowledge. Statistical analysis and in-depth interviews were used as methods of examination. Based on logistic regression models it was found that the bridging factors exert weak or insignificant influence on the willingness to learn computer skills - if they are controlled - so these factors alone are insufficient to bridge the digital divide.

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Abstract

Hepatic steatosis involves an imbalance between the processes of the hepatocytes’ lipid uptake and lipid elimination, an overproduction results in the accumulation of excess triglycerides in the cells of the liver. Normally about 5% of the cells contain triglyceride; in steatosis this may exceed 50%. Under 50% the condition is called fatty infiltration, and over 50% it is called fatty liver. In mild forms this does not necessarily lead to disorders in cell functions, but in more severe forms it does; it often precedes the death of the cell. Fatty liver can be considered a pathologic condition which makes the liver more susceptible to other toxic influences. It is not a genuine disease; in most cases it is associated with a noxious state or other pathologic process. Alcohol-induced fatty liver is a current epidemie. The abnormal accumulation of fat in parenchymal organs, including the liver, is called fatty transformation or steatosis. Alone and limited to a certain degree of severity (the appearance of fibrosis), it represents a reversible damage; upon cessation of the underlying cause the liver clears its excess triglyceride content. The treatment is to be aimed at the underlying process; up to now there is no known specific medicine that could clearly reduce the fat accumulated in the hepatocytes. Although the etiologic factors of these diseases differ from each other, the pathological changes in the liver are very similar, thus certain drugs could be equally effective for treating them both. Metadoxine is one of those drugs, mainly due to its liver-protective effect against damage from free radicals. As an effective antioxidant, metadoxine regulates glutathione levels in the liver and throughout the body, thus positively influencing the maintenance of systemic redox homeostasis. The authors discuss in detail the effect of metadoxine in the treatment of fatty liver diseases (alcoholic and non-alcoholic), they also review the effect of metadoxine in both in vitro and in vivo experimental conditions.

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Abstract

Abstract

The estimated amounts of alcohol consumed regularly are data recorded on the basis of patients’ self-report at history-taking. In many instances, however, patients do not genuinely inform their physician on the extent of their alcohol consumption, and in some cases they simply conceal it. In such cases determination of the amount of carbohydrate-deficient transferrin (CDT) can be helpful.

Objective

To determine the levels of carbohydrate-deficient transferrin in a healthy population.

Methods

The authors performed examinations among inhabitants of a small Hungarian town (Enese). Data of 409 individuals (average age: 49.7 years) have been processed. They included 204 men (average age: 49.3 years) and 205 women (average age: 50.3 years). Subjects were divided into two groups: 1) those who consumed no alcohol or only small quantities (< 40 g/day) and 2) the so-called social drinkers who consumed an amount corresponding to 40 to 60 g alcohol/day. Levels of carbohydrate-deficient transferrin were measured by immune turbidimetry with an automated instrument Hitachi 912 (Roche USA).

Results

In persons consuming no or only small quantities of alcohol, the levels of CDT rise gradually with the increasing age. In the age group between 45 and 65 years the values are significantly higher than in people under 25 years of age. In the younger age group under 45 years, women were found to have significantly higher levels than men. In the social drinkers (beverage consumption corresponding to 40 to 60 g alcohol/day) the values were higher in all cases as compared to those in the non-consuming group, and in the age group between 45 and 65 years the levels were significantly higher than in the younger age group. Of them, men had significantly higher values as compared to women.

Conclusion

CDT levels show a moderate rise with the age, and social drinking increases the values as well.

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Hungarian Medical Journal
Authors: György Szabó, Éva Keller, László Környei, Gabriella Lengyel and János Fehér

Up to now, the measurement of carbohydrate-deficient transferrin (CDT) has been used in persons with a regular alcohol consumption of > 60 g/day, primarily due to aspects of insurance medicine, as its levels have an informative value even at 2 to 3 weeks after the discontinuation of consumption. Objective: There is scarce information in the literature concerning CDT levels in individuals who used chemicals, and therefore we think our cases deserve interest. Case Report: In the first case the measurement was performed at 1 month after the use of a nitro-based varnish, and the CDT value was elevated. In the other case the examination was performed in an agricultural worker who had used chemical weed-killers regularly but discontinued it 6 months before. He also had a very high CDT value. Conclusion: As both workers were documented abstainers, the CDT elevation might be due to the exposition to chemicals. The authors consider these high CDT values as markers of an injury caused by exposition to chemicals.

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Orvosi Hetilap
Authors: György Szabó, László Környei, Éva Keller, Gabriella Lengyel and János Fehér

A rendszeres alkoholfogyasztás mennyiségének a megítélése a beteg anamnézisfelvételekor a beteg elmondása alapján rögzíthető adat. Sok esetben azonban a betegek az alkoholfogyasztás mértékét érdemlegesen nem közlik orvosukkal, bizonyos esetekben egyszerűen eltitkolják. Ilyenkor a szénhidrátszegény transzferrin (CDT) mennyiségének meghatározása segíthet. Célkitűzés: A szénhidrátszegény transzferrin szintjének meghatározása egészséges populációban. Módszerek: A szerzők vizsgálataikat egy magyarországi település (Enese) lakosainak körében végezték. 409 beteg (átlagéletkor: 49,7 év) adatait dolgoztuk fel. Közülük 204 volt férfi (átlagéletkor: 49,3 év) és 205 nő (átlagéletkor: 50,3 év). A vizsgált egyéneket két csoportra osztottuk: 1. alkoholos italt nem vagy csak kismértékben (napi 40 g alatt) fogyasztók; illetve 2. napi 40–60 g-nak megfelelő, úgynevezett társasági ivók csoportjára. A szénhidrátszegény transzferrin mennyiségét immunturbidimetriás módszerrel, Roche/Hitachi Modular P 912 automata készülékkel (Roche, USA) mérték. Eredmények: A CDT értéke alkoholos italt nem vagy csak kis mennyiségben fogyasztók esetében a kor előrehaladtával fokozatosan nő. 45–65 éves korban szignifikánsan magasabb, mint a 25 év alattiak értéke. Nők esetén a fiatalabb, 45 év alatti korosztályban jelentősen nagyobb értéket találtak, mint férfiaknál. A társasági ivóknál (napi 40–60 g-nak megfelelő alkoholos italfogyasztás esetén) az értékek minden esetben magasabbak voltak, mint az alkoholt nem fogyasztók esetén, a 45–65 éves korcsoportban pedig szignifikánsan nagyobb szintet találtak, mint a fiatalabb korosztályban. Közöttük a férfiak esetén volt jelentősen magasabb az érték a nőkhöz viszonyítva. Következtetés: A CDT-szint a korral mérsékelten emelkedik, a társasági alkoholfogyasztás is növeli az értéket.

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Orvosi Hetilap
Authors: György Szabó, Éva Keller, László Környei, Gabriella Lengyel and János Fehér

A szénhidrátszegény transzferrin (CDT: carbohydrate deficient transferrin) meghatározása a napi 60 gr-nál több alkoholt fogyasztók körében volt eddig használatos, elsősorban biztosítás-orvostani szempontok miatt, mivel annak szintje 2–3 héttel a fogyasztás befejezése után is informatív értékű. Célkitűzés: A vegyszerek használata esetén a CDT-szintre vonatkozóan sok információ nincs a szakirodalomban, ezért eseteinket bemutatásra érdemesnek tartjuk. Esetismertetés: Az első esetben nitrobázisú lakk használata után egy hónappal történt a CDT-vizsgálat: a CDT értéke megemelkedett. A másik esetben mezőgazdasági (vegyszerező/permetező) növényvédelmi munkakörben dolgozónál történt a meghatározás 6 hónappal a munka befejezése után. A CDT értéke szintén nagyon emelkedett volt. Következtetés: Mivel mindkét dolgozó dokumentáltan alkoholos italfogyasztásra absztinens volt, így valószínűsíthető a CDT kórjelző/problémajelző értéke a vegyszerfogyasztás hatására. A szerzők úgy látják, hogy a CDT magas értéke vegyszeres expozíciók esetén utalhat a vegyszer okozta károsodás következményére.

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Journal of Flow Chemistry
Authors: Tamás Sipőcz, László Lengyel, Gellért Sipos, László Kocsis, György Dormán, Richard V. Jones and Ferenc Darvas

A novel method for C–H functionalization of heteroaromatic rings by using continuous-flow reactors is reported. Direct alkylation reactions were investigated under heterogeneous catalytic conditions using simple transition metal catalysts at elevated temperature and pressure. As a model reaction, the alkylation of indole was attempted using cheap Raney® Nickel catalyst. Alcohols served both as alkylating agent and as reaction media. The targeted 3-alkyl-indoles were obtained in moderate to good yield with reasonable selectivity. Transient protection on the N-atom increased the selectivity up to 80%. The scope and limitations were also investigated. In summary, direct alkylation with alcohols represents a rapid (residence time of <1 min) and traceless process with high atom economy (88–92%, in those cases where transient protection was not applied).

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Selenium is an essential microelement for the normal functioning of life processes. Moreover, it is a component of enzymes with antioxidant effects. However, it has the smallest window of any micronutrient between requirement and toxicity. Selenium is a regularly used element in fish feeds; moreover, enriching zooplankton with selenium to rear larvae is also a well-known technology. It is accepted that the most common starter foods of fish larvae, natural rotifers contain the smallest dosage of selenium, but providing selenium enriched Artemia sp. instead could increase survival and growth rate of fish. However, no such references are available for the red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus) larvae. Therefore, in this study, Artemia sp. was enriched with nano-selenium of verified low toxicity and easy availability in 5 treatments (1, 5, 10, 50, 100 mg/l Se), and then, fish larvae were fed with four of these enriched Artemia stocks (1, 5, 10, 50 mg/l Se) and a control group. At the end of the 9-day-long experiment, survival rate (S) and growth parameters (SL, W, K-factor, SGR) of fish larvae were calculated as well as their selenium retention and glutathione peroxidase enzyme activity were analysed. It was revealed that a moderate level of selenium enrichment (~4 mg/kg dry matter) of Artemia sp. positively influences the rearing efficiency (i.e. survival and growth) of fish larvae, but higher dosages of selenium could cause adverse effects.

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Orvosi Hetilap
Authors: György Lengyel, Noel Ánosi, Anna Marossy, Mária Mátyus, Tünde Bosnyákovits and László Orosz

Absztrakt:

A kanyaró az egyik legsúlyosabb megelőzhető fertőző megbetegedés, mely hazánkban az elmúlt 10–20 évben a ritkábban előforduló kórképek közé tartozott. Ennek egyik oka, hogy az 1969 után született magyar lakosság átoltottsága közel 99%-os. A másik ok pedig az, hogy az oltási érát megelőző időszakban a gyakran előforduló országos kanyarójárványok az érintettekben életre szóló immunitást hagytak maguk után. A természetes és a mesterséges immunizáció így összességében tehát kiterjedt nyájimmunitást biztosított a populációnak. Az Európában jelenleg is zajló kanyarójárványok azonban rávilágítottak arra, hogy a megbetegedéssel kapcsolatos tünettani és differenciáldiagnosztikai ismeretek az utóbbi 20 évben háttérbe szorultak. Az európai kanyarójárványok hazánkra vonatkozó konzekvenciájának áttekintése mellett a jelen közlemény célja a kanyaró járványügyi kontrolljához szükséges klinikai és labordiagnosztikai ismeretek felelevenítése és összefoglalása. Orv Hetil. 2019; 160(20): 767–773.

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