Business activities considerably affect the fate and survival of natural ecosystems as well as the life conditions of present and future generations. In the light of Hans Jonas' theory of responsibility we can state that business has a one-way, non-reciprocal duty caring for the beings affected by its functioning. To become a fully ethical enterprise, business is to be carried out in sustainable, pro-social and future enhancing ways. Doing ethical business is not a luxury of advanced societies. It is a requirement for modern business to survive in a world of large-scale ecological disruption and social disintegration.
The paper explores Buddhist economics as a major alternative to the Western economic mindset. Buddhism is centred on want negation and purification of the human character. Buddhist economics, developed by Schumacher, Payutto, Welford and others, challenges the basic principles of modern Western economics: (1) profit-maximisation, (2) cultivating desires, (3) introducing markets, (4) instrumental use of the world, and (5) self-interest-based ethics. Buddhist economics proposes alternative principles such as minimising suffering, simplifying desires, non-violence, genuine care, and generosity. It is suggested that Buddhist economics is not a system but a strategy, which can be applied in any economic setting.
The paper gives an interdisciplinary overview of the emerging field of spirituality and business. It uses insights from business ethics, theology, neuroscience, psychology, gender studies, and philosophy to economics, management, organizational science, and banking and refers to different religious convictions including Christianity, Judaism, Islam, Hinduism, Buddhism, Confucianism, the Baha’i faith, and the North-American aboriginal worldview. The authors argue that the materialistic management paradigm has failed. They explore new values for post-materialistic management: frugality, deep ecology, trust, reciprocity, responsibility for future generations, and authenticity. Within this framework profit and growth are no longer ultimate aims but elements in a wider set of values. Similarly, cost-benefit calculations are no longer the essence of management but are part of a broader concept of wisdom in leadership. Spirit-driven businesses require intrinsic motivation for serving the common good and using holistic evaluation schemes for measuring success. The Palgrave Handbook of Business and Spirituality, edited by the authors, is a response to developments that simultaneously challenge the “business as usual” mindset.
Over the centuries, Buddhist monks applied economic models in the operations of their monasteries to make them sustainable while also observing Buddhist principles. The large variety of economic practices observed demonstrate the creativity of monastics in acquiring the resources to support their large monasteries in a way that was viewed as compatible with Buddhist ethics embodied in the Noble Eightfold Path. Researchers have analyzed the integration of faith-based and financially related monastic needs for different countries in different eras. The Buddhist economics approach as it has been developed in the last 40-50 years aims to create an alternative worldview that challenges the main underlying assumptions of Western economics. The mainstream Western economics model is originally based on the following assumptions: rational, selfish behavior; profit-maximization; competitive markets; and instrumental use of the environment. Buddhist economics is based on a different set of assumptions: dependent origination (“pratityasamutpada”), where people are interdependent with each other and with Earth; people are aware of enlightened self-interest based on interdependence and thus are altruistic; firms care about the well-being of workers, customers, shareholders, and community; and all activities include caring for the environment. With these assumptions, the Buddhist economic model has shared prosperity in a sustainable world with minimal suffering as its goal.
The first results of the Hungarian sheep prion protein (PrP) genotyping programme are discussed in this paper. To obtain initial genotype frequency data 10 commercial (Hungarian Merino, German Mutton Merino, Merino Landschaf, German Blackheaded, Suffolk, Texel, Ile de France, Charollais, Lacaune, British Milksheep) and 4 indigenous (Gyimes Racka, Hortobágy Racka, Tsigaja, Cikta) breeds were sampled in 2003 and 2004, and the PrP genotypes were determined by microsequencing analysis with capillary electrophoresis. In all commercial breeds, a higher number of sheep were genotyped in 2005 (3648) and in 2006 (3834) within the breeding programme to increase scrapie resistance, and the estimated frequency data were compared to the initial figures to evaluate the efficiency of selection. The new developments arising from the identification of the so-called ‘atypical’ scrapie cases are also discussed.
Thoroughbreds have been selected for speed and stamina since the 1700s. This selection resulted in structural and functional system-wide adaptations that enhanced physiological characteristics for outstanding speed of 61–71 kph (38–44 mph) between 1,000 and 3,200 m (5 furlongs – 2 miles). At present, horseracing is still an economically important industrial sector, therefore intensive research is underway to explore genes that allow the utilisation of genetic abilities and are significant in breeding and training. This study aims to provide an overview of genetic research and its applicability related to Thoroughbreds.
The aim of this study was to reveal the effect of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on the total number of piglets born (TNB), the litter weight born alive (LWA), the number of piglets born dead (NBD), the average litter weight on the 21st day (M21D) and the interval between litters (IBL). Genotypes were determined on a high-density Illumina Porcine SNP 60K BeadChip. Data screening and data identification were performed by a multi-locus mixed-model. Statistical analyses were carried out to find associations between individual genotypes of 290 Hungarian Large White sows and the investigated reproduction parameters. According to the analysis outcome, three SNPs were identified to be associated with TNB. These loci are located on chromosomes 1, 6 and 13 (−log10P = 6.0, 7.86 and 6.22, the frequencies of their minor alleles, MAF, were 0.298, 0.299 and 0.364, respectively). Two loci showed considerable association (−log10P = 10.35 and 10.46) with LWA on chromosomes 5 and X, the MAF were 0.425 and 0.446, respectively. Seven loci were found to be associated with NBD. These loci are located on chromosomes 5, 6, 13, 14, 15, 16 and 18 (−log10P = 10.95, 5.43, 8.29, 6.72, 6.81, 5.90, and 5.15, respectively). One locus showed association (−log10P = 5.62) with M21D on chromosome 1 (the MAF was 0.461). Another locus was found to be associated with IBL on chromosome 8 (−log10P = 7.56; the MAF was 0.438). The above-mentioned loci provide a straightforward possibility to assist selection by molecular tools and, consequently, to improve the competitiveness of the Hungarian Large White (HLW) breed.
Eredmények: A C/C csoport mért izomvastagságai 22,08 (p =
0,004) és 12,24 (p < 0,001) %-kal; a cardiovascularis rendszeré 6,33 (p =
0,015), 6,03 (p = 0,011) és 6,72 (p = 0,014) %-kal magasabb volt, mint a T/T
genotípusnál. Pearson-féle R: anconeus pólyahossz r = 0,460; triceps r = 0,590;
aorta Valsalva-öböl diasztolé r = 0,423, szisztolé r = 0,450, billentyűk
síkjában szisztolé r = 0,462.
Következtetések: Az eredmények hozzájárulnak a galopplovak
hatékony tréningmódszereinek kidolgozásához, így jelentősen befolyásolható
Background: The myostatin gene (MSTN; g.66493737) C/T
polymorphism has great influence on the development of the muscles and the rates
between the types of muscle fibers as well as cardiovascular performance in
thoroughbred horses. Consequently MSTN gene decisively determines the optimal
race distance and racing ability in thoroughbreds through the muscle development
regulation. A more detailed understanding of these genetic attributions and
their associations leads us to be able to maximise the athletic potential of
Objective: In this paper the relationships were investigated
between the MSTN genotypes and muscle development or the main cardiovascular
parameters which affect or define the cardiac performance of thoroughbreds.
Methods: Ultrasonography and echocardiography was performed on
each individual selected for our study. Sixty-six thoroughbreds were applied in
each measurement (22 of each genotype, C/C, C/T and T/T). All of them
participated at different races or were trained at the same time in Hungary. A
portable MyLab™ ultrasound system (Alfa-Vet, Animal Healthcare Ltd.) was used
for the measurements. To investigate the development of the candidate muscles
the size of the anconaeous and triceps brachii muscles were used as indicators.
The length of the mentioned muscles was given by the size of the total length of
the muscle fascia (m. fasciae anconeus and m. fasciae triceps brachii).
Thickness was measured at the largest anatomical diameter of the muscles. To
characterize the cardiovascular system, the diameter of the Valsalva sinus of
the aorta was measured at the end of diastole and systole, respectively, as well
as the diameter of the aorta in the plane of the semilunar valves. The data were
analyzed with the SPSS 15.0 for Windows software. Homogeneity of variance
between groups was checked with Levene’s test and multivariate analysis of
variance was used to determine the correlations between the measured variables
and the myostatin genotypes.
Results According to our measurements relationship was detected
between individual myostatin genotypes, muscular development and cardiovascular
parameters of the thoroughbreds. The muscle thickness and fascicle length of
group C/C of MSTN showed significant differences compared to group T/T. Aortic
diameter at the sinus of Valsalva (end-diastole and end-systole) and aortic
diameter at the valve (end-systole) also indicated significant differences
between C/C and T/T genotypes too. The thickness of the two muscles (anconaeous
and triceps brachii) in the group C/C was 2.08 (p=0.004) and 12.24
(p<0.001) % higher; and of the parameters of cardiovascular system were
6.33 (p=0.015), 6.03 (p=0.011) and 6.72 (p=0.014) % greater, respectively, than
in the T/T genotypes.
Conclusions: The results contribute to a better understanding
of the effects of MSTN genetic variations on phenotypes, which help to develop
new, effective training methods for racehorses in order to prepare them for
their best race distance according to their genotypes. Thus, the competitive
performance and racing ability of thoroughbreds can be improved significantly.