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  • Author or Editor: L Chodari x
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Objective

Low levels of testosterone in men with diabetes are associated with cardiovascular complications. We investigated the effect of testosterone and voluntary exercise on heart angiogenesis in castrated diabetic rats.

Methods

Sixty-three diabetic rats were treated with testosterone 2 mg/kg/day or voluntary exercise alone or combination of these two for 6 weeks. At the end of the study, heart tissue samples were collected and used for CD31 detection by immunohistochemical method and determination of miR-132 levels.

Results

miR-132 levels and CD31 of heart tissue were higher after testosterone administration and in the voluntary exercise group in diabetic rats after 6 weeks. Combination of testosterone and voluntary exercise had synergistic effect on angiogenesis and miR-132 level. In castrated diabetic rats, there were significantly lower levels of miR-132 and CD31 in heart tissue compared to the diabetic group, whereas testosterone and exercise reversed these effects. In addition, testosterone supplementation plus exercise had an additive effect on miR-132 levels and CD31 in castrated diabetic rats.

Conclusions

It was concluded that castration in rats leads to reduced miR-132 levels and subsequently decreased angiogenesis in diabetes. Testosterone plus voluntary exercise improved angiogenesis possibly through enhancement of miR-132 levels in heart of castrated diabetic rats.

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Objectives

Impaired angiogenesis in sciatic nerve is a major complication of diabetic neuropathy. Protein kinase B (AKT) and extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK) signaling pathways play critical roles during capillary-like network formation in the angiogenesis process.

Methods

Twenty-four adult male Wistar rats (weight: 250–300 g) were used in the research. The rats were randomly divided into four groups (n = 6): (1) diabetic (Dia), (2) diabetic + castration (Dia-Cas), (3) diabetic + exercise (Dia-E), and (4) diabetic + castration + exercise (Dia-Cas-E). Type 1 diabetes (T1D) was induced with streptozotocin (50 mg/kg). After 6 weeks, sciatic nerve was separated and used for histological evaluation and determination of phosphorylated AKT (P-AKT) and phosphorylated ERK (P-ERK) levels by ELISA method.

Results

Glucose levels decreased in the Dia-E group compared to the Dia-Cas group (p < 0.01). In addition, our finding shows that exercise in the Dia-Cas group diminished blood glucose levels compared to the Dia-Cas group but this effect of exercise was not significant. Voluntary exercise in the diabetic castrated group decreased P-AKT protein and increased P-ERK 1/2 protein levels in the sciatic tissue compared to the diabetes group significantly (p < 0.05). Histopathological findings showed that Dia-Cas group with 6-week exercise training significantly raised the number of microvascular density in the sciatic tissue of diabetic rats compared to the diabetic group (p < 0.05).

Conclusions

Voluntary exercise in diabetic rats increases angiogenesis in the sciatic nerve. The possible mechanism is the increase of P-ERK 1/2 but not P-AKT levels in the sciatic nerve of T1D rats.

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Background

Oxidative stress plays a critical role in the pathogenesis and progression of type 2 diabetes and diabetic-associated cardiovascular complications. This study investigated the impact of crocin combined with voluntary exercise on heart oxidative stress indicator in high-fat diet-induced type 2 diabetic rats.

Materials and methods

Rats were divided into four groups: diabetes, diabetic-crocin, diabetic-voluntary exercise, diabetic-crocin-voluntary exercise. Type 2 diabetes was induced by high-fat diet (4 weeks) and injection of streptozotocin (intraperitoneally, 35 mg/kg). Animals received crocin orally (50 mg/kg); voluntary exercise was performed alone or combined with crocin treatment for 8 weeks. Finally, malondialdehyde (MDA), activity of antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and catalase (CAT) were measured spectrophotometrically.

Results

Treatment of diabetic rats with crocin and exercise significantly decreased the levels of MDA (p < 0.001) and increased the activity of SOD, GPx, and CAT compared with the untreated diabetic group. In addition, combination of exercise and crocin amplified their effect on antioxidant levels in the heart tissue of type 2 diabetic rats.

Conclusion

We suggest that a combination of crocin with voluntary exercise treatment may cause more beneficial effects in antioxidant defense system of heart tissues than the use of crocin or voluntary exercise alone.

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