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Abstract  

This paper analyzes the scientific relationships between Spain and the Eastern European countries (EEc), including the former USSR, from 1982 to 1992. The study considers the number of co-authored papers as well as the number of stays which reflect to the exchange of scientists among them. The total number of co-authored papers of Spanish scientists with their colleagues of those countries is 664 as recorded in theScience Citation Index. During the last three years, a significative increase in the number of co-signed papers has been observed. From the sample considered, the percentage of bilateral and multilateral co-authored papers is 43.8 and 56.2 respectively. In absolute figures, USSR and Poland are the countries with highest number of collaborative papers with Spain. However, in relation to their scientific output, Poland and Hungary show a higher percentage of co-authored papers than the rest of EEc. On the other hand, previous data, provided by the Spanish Secretary of State for Research and Universities (SEUI), related to the flow of scientists on sabbatical year to and from Spain,1 showed that from 1984 to 1994, a total of 213 researches come from the EEc to Spain, while the number of Spanish scientists going to those countries was extremely scarce.

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Abstract  

The aim of this study is to identify changes in publishing behavior of Spanish scientists belonging to the Area of Agronomy of the Spanish Research Council (CSIC), in response to scientific policy actions carried out in Spain. For this purpose, we analyze Spanish scientific output published in Spanish journals (covered by the ICYT database), as well as in international journals (covered by theScience Citation Index), during the period 1980–1995. Congress and conference publications, books and monographs, are also considered. The following changes in publication habits have been noticed: migration of works towards SCI journals and increased use of books and monographs as channel of publication of research works. A decreasing participation of Spanish researchers in scientific meetings has also been noticed, especially since 1989.

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Thermogravimetry and vapor pressure moisture

Applications to determination of residual moisture in BCG vaccine

Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry
Authors: J May, A Del Grosso, N Etz, R Wheeler, and L Rey

Abstract  

Thermogravimetry (TG), thermogravimetry/mass spectrometry (TG/MS), and loss-on-drying methodology are used to provide residual moisture results for freeze-dried biological products regulated by the US Food and Drug Administration. Residual moisture specifications must be met in order to ensure freeze-dried biological product potency and stability throughout the licensed product's shelf life. TG, TG/MS, loss-on-drying and vapor pressure moisture measurements are compared for a BCG Vaccine. Comparisons are made between residual moisture data for the freeze-dried cake and vapor pressure moisture determinations in the space above the freeze-dried cake in the final container. Vapor pressure moisture precision data is presented for α-interferon and BCG vaccine. Impact of residual moisture and vapor pressure moisture upon product stability is presented.

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