This study focuses on the nocturnal and diurnal temperature relations inside and around the pits of Myrmeleon bore pit-building ant-lion larvae living in unsheltered microhabitat and Euroleon nostras living in sheltered microhabitat. The larvae's potential hunting activity and prey handling phase of predation in relation to the temperature conditions were observed. Due to the structure of pitfalls and the thermal layers above and under the sand surface, the larvae must suffer less temperature fluctuation during the day than their environment. The role of the pitfall seems to be just as important in prey capturing as in temperature tolerance. This function of pits especially prevails in unsheltered microhabitats. In unsheltered microhabitats temperature influences the potential predator activity as well as the distribution of prey handling phase of predation in time. The potential hunting activity of larvae is not influenced by temperature in sheltered microhabitats, where their prey handling phase of predation depends mainly on the activity of prey species. It takes one year for both species to develop, but underdeveloped individuals of two-year life cycle can also be found. During the observation period, the chances of development for normally developed larvae living in unsheltered microhabitats proved far better than the chances for underdeveloped larvae due to the temperature. During their evolution, pit-building ant-lion larvae have strongly adapted themselves to extreme environmental factors physiologically and behaviourally as well.
sp. n. is described from Morocco and compared to
Tjeder, 1980 from Gambia and Ghana.
Navas, 1913 (syn. n.) is a junior synonym of
In this study the Ptyngidricerus Van der Weele, 1908 genus has been revised and in the course of this 2 new genera and 4 new species are described. The description of the new genus was made possible apart from the male samples, the females (P. albardanus) which were recorded and supplement of the description based on damaged specimens (P. iranensis) earlier enabling the evaluation of their taxonomic status. The following species belonging to Ptyngidricerus genus: Ptyngidricerus albardanus albardanus (McLachlan, 1891), Ptyngidricerus albardanus pterostigmatus Alexandrov Martynov, 1926, Ptyngidricerus pseudoalbardanus sp. n. Ptyngidricerus persepolisensis sp. n. and Ptyngidricerus sendanensis sp. n. from Iran and Ptyngidricerus pakistanensis sp. n. from Pakistan. Apart from describing the new species the authors present a description of the female Ptyngidricerus albardanus albardanus (McLachlan, 1891) which has so far not been known according to the literature on this species. The earlier described species were combinated on the basis of their genitalia and external morphological characteristics in new genus: Iranoidricerus iranensis (Kimmins, 1938) and Omanoidricerus venustus (Tjeder and Waterston, 1977). The illustration of the female and male genitalia of Iranoidricerus iranensis Kimmins, 1938 is also presented. On account of sexual dimorphism a key is given for identification of the female and male specimens with 25 figures.
The present study gives a description of two new genus belonging to Ascalaphini tribus according to the classification of Ascalaphinae Lefébvre, 1842 [=Schizophthalminae Weele (1908)]: the Horischema gen. n. and Perissoschema gen. n. It also describes some of their species, Horischema ronkayorum sp. n. and Perissoschema evae sp. n. from the area of the Himalayas, Pakistan, and Nepal. Key for all genera of the tribus is given. With 8 photos.
Using laboratory experiments, the
daily activity patterns of 16 Neuroptera species (6 Chrysopidae, 2
Coniopterygidae, 3 Hemerobiidae, 3 Myrmeleontidae, 1 Mantispidae, 1
Ascalaphidae) were studied by the authors. The results of the experiments were
described by activity diagrams and were categorized into Duelli-type flight
activity pattern. During the study, 14 species showed carnea type of nocturnal
activity. Mantispa styriaca proved to belong to hypochrysodes type which is
active at daytime. The daily activity pattern of Libelloides macaronius differs
from the hypochrysodes type due to its strong preference of UV radiation;
therefore it is described as a separate libelloides type.
Studying ascalaphid materials from
Thailand, Laos and Pakistan the authors determined specimens which belonged to
the genus of Nousera. In this paper the
redescription of the genus of Nousera and its type species, Nousera gibba Navás, 1923 can be found. Besides Nousera herczigi, a new
species from Pakistan is also described. With altogether 23 figures. In the end
the species of Nousera were revised and found that Nousera furcifer (Van der
Weele, 1909) does not belong to the genus of Nousera. As its original generic
name of Pseudoptynx Van der Weele, 1909 is a homonym, a new name (nomen novum)
has to be given replaced such as Ascapseudoptynx furcifer (Van der Weele,