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  • Author or Editor: L. Biró x
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Abstract  

Hydrated electrons (e aq ) formed in water radiolysis react with ethyl propionate with a rate parameter of 7.5×107 mol–1 dm3 s–1. The electron adduct in acidic solutions immediately (<100 ns) dissociates, yielding CH3CH2C=0 radical. This process in alkaline solutions is slower, k=1.4×105 s–1. The hydroxyl radicals abstract H atoms in about 50% from the -position of propionate.

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The paper describes the development of an Access-based electronic food frequency questionnaire, capable of collecting information in a convenient, efficient and reliable manner, with data-handling routines to analyse the information and output findings as concise user-friendly reports. It contains a comprehensive food list alongside a nutrient data set, derived from McCance and Widdowson’s The Composition of Foods. Frequency of consumption of each food is divided into six categories, and portion size classed as large, medium or small, the medium portion being defined in grams. Data can be input directly using a laptop via a simple user interface, removing the need for forms. Immediate analysis of food consumption is accessible on screen or as hard copy, and results can be exported for statistical analysis. The structure and the algorithms of the program make it extremely flexible, enabling it to be tailored and re-validated according to specific requirements.

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The authors’ aim is to reveal the reflection of Hungarian political and economic transformation in the public health nutrition during the last two and a half decades. Results of the four representative, nationwide dietary surveys completed in this period have been analysed for macro-, micronutrient intakes and overweight/obesity. The food consumption-related vital statistics provided by Hungarian Central Statistical Office were also analysed and compared. There are certain signs of favourable improvements: slight decrease of energy intake in females, growing share of plant protein, less saturated, more polyunsaturated fatty acid intake, less sugar. These findings are in parallel with some positive general statistical issues: the extension of life expectancy, lesser acute myocardial infarction, atherosclerosis and stomach cancer mortality, more vegetables and fruit, lesser lard, more oil consumption. On the other hand, there are several detrimental nutritional issues that influence the health status of Hungarian population: still high energy, fat and cholesterol intake, low complex carbohydrates, too much sodium (salt), insufficiencies in some vitamin, macro- and microelements intake. The number of overweight/obese people takes up fairly high level. The surveys somewhat revealed the role of nutrition in the health status of population and now a particle of possibility for its improvement is available

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In 2009 Hungarian Food Safety Office (HFSO) performed a countrywide representative dietary survey to obtain food consumption data for quantitative food safety risk assessment utilizable in the field of public health nutrition as well. The consumption of foodstuffs, daily energy- and nutrient intakes, nutritional habits and dietary supplement usage of Hungarian population was assessed. The complex system has included three-day dietary record and a food consumption frequency questionnaire. Some anthropometric parameters were also self-recorded. According to the body mass index, a considerable proportion of both the 31–60 years old males (69%) and females (46%) were overweight or obese. The energy intake of the Hungarian adult population is slightly exceeds the recommendation. The intake of proteins is satisfactory in general. The average intake of total fats is very high (36.1–38.9 energy percent), and the fatty acid composition — mostly the ratio of n-6/n-3 fatty acids — is unfavourable, but the fatty acid pattern regarding saturated- (SFA), mono- (MUFA) and polyunsaturated (PUFA) fatty acid ratio shows favourable tendency. The proportion of complex carbohydrates within the intake of energy providing macronutrients is far lower than the optimal level, but it is a positive finding that added sugar intake is below the outmost recommendation. The average daily cholesterol intake is high (males: 469 mg, females: 335 mg), whilst the dietary fibre intake is lower than the recommended. The article provides data on alcohol, caffeine and fibre consumption, too.

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The fourth countrywide nutrition survey was initiated and co-ordinated by the Hungarian Food Safety Office jointly to the yearly Household Budget Survey of Hungarian Central Statistical Office in 2009. The dietary assessment was performed by trained interviewers and skilled dieticians using a complex questionnaire system, containing three-day diary, short food frequency questionnaire and questions on taking of dietary supplements and on prevalence of food allergy. The data records were processed and the questionnaires were validated, the results obtained on the micronutrient intakes of the adult population are shown in this article. From fat soluble vitamins, the average daily intakes of vitamins A and D were lower than the national recommendations in case of both genders, meaning low intake for around 60% (in case of retinol) and 80–90% (in case of calciferols) of adults. The intakes of some water soluble vitamins belonging to B group, vitamin C and folates were low as well. Regarding the macroelements, the most important health problem on population level is the extremely high sodium load of the inhabitants, combined with unfavourable sodium/potassium ratio. The average daily calcium intake of every age and gender group was far below the recommended value. The average daily intake of iron was low for the 50% of adult females. The article also provides data on frequency of food supplement taking habits of inhabitants and of self-reported food allergy.

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Authors: M. Tenk, Á. Bálint, L. Stipkovits, Judit Bíró and L. Dencső

A Mycoplasma bovis species-specific PCR assay has been developed with improvement of a previously described method (Ghadersohi et al., 1997). This test and its semi-nested version (Hayman and Hirst, 2003) did not function at all in our hands. A new reverse primer (Mbr2) was designed using previously published sequence data. For testing specificity, DNA was extracted from the most frequently occurring mycoplasma species and bacteria of bovine origin. The new PCR detected only Mycoplasma bovis. Moreover, no cross-reaction was observed with the genetically closest relative species, M. agalactiae. The target organism could be detected in a dose as low as 150 CFU ml-1 in broth cultures using ethidium-bromide-stained agarose gels.

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Authors: G. Balázs, S. Doszlop, O. Biró and L. Palotás
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Abstract  

By using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) it has been shown that some pristine carbon SWNT's and MWNT's of different makes, contain a multitude of trace element impurities at various concentration levels including also amounts which can be considered as nanoelectronically dopant quantities. The same holds for the above mentioned carbon nanotubes also after their inadequately so-called purification.

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The glomerular filtration barrier is a highly specialized tri-layer structure with unique functional properties. Podocyte dysfunction and cytoskeletal disorganization leads to disruption of the slit diaphragma, and proteinuria. Inflammatory diseases involving the kidney as well as inherited podocytopathies or diabetic nephropathy cause injury of the podocyte network. Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) is a pathologic entity that is a common cause of nephrotic syndrome with severe proteinuria in both adults and children. Several causative genes have been identified in the pathogenesis of FSGS. Mutations of the transient receptor potential canonical-6 (TRPC6), a non-selective cation channel that is directly activated by diacylglycerol (DAG), cause a particularly aggressive form of FSGS. Angiotensin II, acting through its AT1 receptor, plays a critical role in generation of proteinuria and progression of kidney injury in a number of kidney diseases, including FSGS. Mounting evidence suggest the central role of TRPC6 and perhaps other TRPC channels in the pathogenesis of FSGS as well as of acquired forms of proteinuria such as diabetic nephropathy or hypertension. Identification of signaling pathways downstream of TRPC6 may provide novel targets for the treatment of proteinuria and prevent progression of podocyte injury.

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Nutrition and lifestyle-related diseases are some of the leading morbidities among the Hungarian population. People who want to lose weight often complain that healthy diet is expensive.

Our aim was to quantify the costs of three different types of diet for a three-day period. We compared “traditional Hungarian”, low energy, and diabetic diets, considering both energy content and expenses related to lifestyle.

According to our estimation: diabetic (including medication) and ”traditional” Hungarian diets were the most expensive. Low energy diet proved to be the most cost-effective despite the extra expenditures of higher physical activity.

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