Authors:F. Lopes, C. R. Appoloni, V. F. Nascimento, F. L. Melquiades, and L. C. Almeida
This paper presents the first measurement of the elemental composition of the suspended particulate matter in the atmosphere
of Londrina city (Paraná State, Brazil). The sampling was accomplished in the summer of 2003 and in the winter of 2002, with
a stacker filter holder, collecting simultaneously the fine particulates (PM2.5) and the coarse particulates (PM10). The concentration of K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br and Pb associated with particulate matter was determined
by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence. The results of the grouping analysis suggested that the elements in the aerosol particles
came from two sources: soil re-suspension and industrial or anthropogenic activities.
Authors:K. C. S. Almeida, H. Oikawa, J. Oliveira, and C. L. Duarte
A major concern with leaking petroleum is the environmental contamination by the toxic and water-soluble components such as
benzene, toluene and xylenes (BTX). These hydrocarbons have relatively high pollution potential because of their significant
toxicity. All BTX compounds are depressants to the central nervous system. Consequently, BTX are priority pollutants and their
occurrence has led to the development of several physical, chemical and biological methods for their removal. The use of nuclear
technology for protection and conservation of the environment, by the destruction of toxic organic compounds present in the
environmental, drinking water, soils and industrial sewage has been the object of study of several authors in Brazil and in
the world. The objective of this paper is to present the preliminary results of the study of contamination of the seawater
by the main pollutants of the output and transport of petroleum, such as benzene, toluene and xylene, and their removal by
the exposure to the ionizing radiation.
Authors:M. A. L. da Silva, M. C. M. de Almeida, and J. U. Delgado
An approach for half-life determination using the reference source method associated with gamma-spectrometry with a Ge detector is presented. The method reduces the contribution of the type B component of the total uncertainty. The independence of the method regarding the instrumental interferences or radiochemical impurities was evidenced. However, there are some limitations when the method is applied for a genetically-related impurity with the same or very similar energy to that of the radionuclide to be measured, e.g., if 99Mo in a 99mTc sample is present. The measured half-life values are in good agreement with those of the literature and the associated uncertainties are lower than 0.1%.
Authors:L. M. Jesus, P. R. C. Abreu, Marcela C. Almeida, Lavínia C. Brito, Sheila F. Soares, D. E. De Souza, Luciana C. Bernardo, A. S. Fonseca, and M. Bernardo-Filho
Since ancient times propolis has been employed for many human purposes because to their favourable properties. Blood constituents labeled with technetium-99m (99mTc) have been used in nuclear medicine procedures. Some authors have reported that synthetic or natural drugs can interfere with the labeling of blood constituents with 99mTc. The aim of this work was to evaluate the action of a propolis extract on the labeling of blood elements with 99mTc. Samples of whole blood of male Wistar rats were incubated in sequence with an aqueous propolis extract at different concentrations, stannous chloride and 99mTc, as sodium pertechnetate. Blood samples were centrifuged to separate plasma and blood cells, soluble and insoluble fractions of plasma and blood cells were also separated after precipitation in trichloroacetic acid solution and centrifugation. The radioactivity was counted and the percentage of incorporated radioactivity (%ATI) for each fraction was calculated. The data obtained showed that the aqueous propolis extract used decreased significantly the %ATI in plasma proteins at higher concentration studied. Results suggest that at high concentration the constituents of this extract could alter the labeling of plasma proteins competing with same binding sites of the 99mTc on the plasma proteins or acting as antioxidant compounds.
This study is aimed at performing the determination of bioactive compounds, antioxidant activity, and the identification of the minerals in the flours produced with the tropical fruit peels of mango, papaya, melon, and pineapple. The results showed that the papaya peel flour has the highest amount of ascorbic acid and lycopene when compared with the other studied flours. The mango peel flour has a high content of total extractable polyphenols and a high antioxidant activity. Regarding the mineral content, the by-product of melon stood out with 523.24±26.12 mg/100 g of potassium, 104.15±3.52 mg/100 g of calcium and 6.62±0.30 mg/100 g of iron. The flours prepared with mango, papaya, melon, and pineapple peels are potential sources of bioactive compounds and minerals, also presenting good antioxidant activity, being, therefore, recommended to be used in food products to improve the nutritional quality of the product.