This paper summarizes the history of and information on bovine herpesvirus type 4 (BoHV-4) from the first isolation to the most recent results. For almost twenty years BoHV-4 has been considered a typical herpes ‘orphan’ virus, which infects several species but causes no illness. The latest experiments revealed the close relationship of this virus with the immune system and other tissues. The virus was even considered as a possible candidate for a vector vaccine. BoHV-4 as a strange herpesvirus has several features which are not characteristic of other herpesviruses, such as several latency sites, persistence in serum, dividing cells necessary for virus replication, and the wide host range. In addition to describing the main features of the virion, replication, clinical signs, nomenclature problems, this review intends to concentrate on the new and strange results coming out from several laboratories worldwide. It is also suggested that because the virus combines several properties of various herpesvirus subfamilies and because of its close relationship with the immune system, it may deserve further attention as a representative of a potentially new genus within the Gammaherpesvirinae subfamily.
Authors:Katalin Fábián, Rita Ivanics, Melinda Terényi and L. Egyed
The presence and numbers of bovine herpesvirus 4 (BoHV-4) infected CD11b+ leukocytes were investigated during experimental infections of New Zealand White rabbits by Fluorescence Activated Cell Sorter (FACS) analysis. Peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL) were collected every second day, and the cells were stained with phycoerythrin-labelled CD11b-specific mouse monoclonal antibody and fluorescein-conjugated bovine herpesvirus 4-specific mouse monoclonal antibody. The numbers of double-stained cells from PBLs of the control and inoculated groups were measured and compared in FACSTREK analyser. Double-stained cells were detected in the virus-inoculated group on postinoculation days (PID) 2-5 and 9-12. The results indicated that CD11b+ PBLs were permissive for BoHV-4 infection, and are probably the main reservoir of the virus during the latent period. The data did not indicate production of infectious viral particles, but virus-specific proteins were expressed on the surface of CD11b+ cells. The two waves of double-stained cells gave similar results to the PCR assays from serum samples, which showed the presence of viral DNA in the serum on the same days when virus-infected CD11b cells were also present. Productive BoHV-4 infection of mast cells or undifferentiated leukocytes in the bone marrow and the antiviral immune response might be responsible for this periodic appearance of the virus in CD11b+ PBLs and in the serum. The paper provides evidence that CD11b+ PBLs are the main target cell populations in the blood for BoHV-4.
Authors:Z. Pádár, B. Egyed, K. Kontadakis, L. Zöldág and S. Fekete
A case of disputed paternity in dogs is reported. DNA examinations were carried out from hair samples of the individuals several months after the death of the putative sire. Ten short tandem repeat (STR) loci were analysed by fluorescence- labelled multiplex PCR using ABI PRISM 310 Genetic Analyser. Based on the results the candidate sire was included in the pedigree records as the biological sire. In spite o f the genetic homogeneity of pedigree dogs due to inbreeding, canine microsatellites can provide an adequate basis for assigning paternity in pure breeds.