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The yeast biomass, remaining after drawing off the young wine, has not entirely lost either its viability or its fermentative capacity. There have been studies on the possibilities of yeast reusing in a fermentative process in order that an alcoholic liquid should be obtained either for vinegar production or for distillable alcohol. High CO2 level was obtained when a 20% saccharose concentration in syrup was established. Inoculating 20% residual wine yeast, the maximum fermentative activity occurs after two days. The study results suggest the residual wine yeast, which acts upon some syrup, should not have less than 15% or more than 25% sugar in order to avoid a heavy and lingering fermentation or plasmolysis.

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The volatile oils obtained from Thymus species (either cultivated or grown wild) show different antibacterial activities due to the phenol content of the volatile oil. The results obtained for the antibacterial activity of the volatile oils obtained from Thymus species on the pathogen Gram-positive bacteria Streptococcus haemolyticus , 2, Staphylococcus aureus 1, Diplococcus pneumoniae 3 show that volatile oils of T. marschallianus Wild, T. glabrescens Wild and T. pulegioides L. ssp. chamaedrys , having a high content of phenols, exert an antibacterial activity more powerful than volatile oils obtained from the culture of T. vulgaris L. species. From the Gram-positive bacteria studied, Diplococcus pneumoniae 3 shows the highest sensitivity to the volatile oils in the Thymus species and to the volatile oil’s components compared to Staphylococcus aureus 1, which is the most resistant. We here report on some volatile thyme oils with antimicrobial activities, which may act as antibiotic agents.

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The drought stress tolerance of three accessions of Aegilops biuncialis Vis. (Ae225, Ae550 and Ae1050) and two varieties of Triticum aestivum L. (Sakha and Cappelle Desprez) was compared. The activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) isoenzymes, which reflects the intensity of oxidative stress, changes in the malonic dialdehyde (MDA) content, formed during the lipid peroxidation induced by stress situations, and the inducibility of electron removal systems appearing as an alternative to CO 2 fixation were chosen for the present investigations. Drought stress was simulated using polyethylene glycol (PEG). The order of drought stress tolerance obtained correlated well with the original habitats ofthe varieties. The present results provide a clear illustration of the fact that tolerant varieties respond differently for the parameters tested, suggesting that their resistance can be attributed to different mechanisms. Abbreviations:CuZnSOD=superoxide dismutase isoform with Cu and Zn cofactor metals, MnSOD and FeSOD=superoxide dismutase isoform with Mn and Fe cofactor metals, PVP25= polyvinyl pyrrolidone 25, MDA=malonic dialdehyde, PEG=polyethylene glycol, TCA=trichloro acetic acid, TBA=thiobarbituric acid, ΔF=F m -F s , F m =maximal fluorescence yield, F s =fluorescence yield in steady state

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Acta Biologica Hungarica
Authors:
Z. Krasznai
,
F. Weidema
,
D. L. Ypey
,
R. Gáspár
,
Teréz Márián
, and
Sándor Damjanovich

In this paper we report on a hypoosmolality induced current, Iosmo, in embryonic chicken osteoclasts, which could only be studied when blocking a simultaneously active, unidentified slow outward cur- rent, Islo. Islo was observed in all of the examined cells when both the intracellular and extracellular solutions contained sodium as the major cation and no potassium. The current was outwardly rectifying and acti- vated at membrane potentials more positive than +44 ± 12 mV (n = 31). The time to half activation of the current was also voltage dependent and was 350 ms at Vm = +80 mV, and 78 ms at Vm = +120 mV. The current did not inactivate during periods up to 5 s. Extracellular 4-AP (5 mM), TEA (5 mM) and Ba 2+ (1 mM), blockers of K + conductances in chicken osteoclasts, did not influence Islo. However, Islo was inhibited by 50 mM extracellular verapamil, which allowed us to study Iosmo in isolation. Exposure of the osteoclasts to hypotonic solution resulted in the development of a depolarization acti- vated Iosmo. It developed after a 1-min delay and reached its maximum within 10 minutes. Half-maximal activation occurred after 4.4 ± 0.9 min (n = 9). The current activated within a few ms upon depolariza- tion and did not inactivate during at least 5 sec. Iosmo reversed around the calculated Nernst potential for C1 & (ECl = +7.3 mV and Vrev = +5.4 ± 3.6 mV, n = 9). The underlying conductance, Gosmo exhibited mod- erate outward rectification around 0 mV in symmetrical C1 & solutions. Ion substitution experiments showed that Gosmo is an anion conductance with PCl » PF ≯ Pgluc ≯≯ P Na. Iosmo was blocked by 0.5 mM SITS but 50 mM verapamil, 5 mM TEA, 5 mM 4-AP, 1 mM Ba 2+, 50 mM cytochalasin D and 0.5 mM alendronate did not have any effect on the current. Cl & currents

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To check the importance of Cd-induced iron deficiency in Cd stress, symptoms of Cd stress were compared with those of iron deficiency or the combination of these two stresses. Poplar plants grown in hydroponics with Fe-EDTA (e) or Fe-citrate (c) up to four-leaf stage were treated for two weeks either by the withdrawal of iron (Fedef), or supplying 10 μM Cd(NO3)2 in the presence (Cad) or absence of an iron source (Fedef + Cad). Cadmium and iron content of leaves developing under the stress was in the order of cCad > eCad > cFedef + Cad and cCad ≈ eFedef ≈ cFedef + Cad < eCad < cFedef, respectively. Growth inhibition was much stronger in Cad than Fedef plants. The inhibitory effects on CO2 fixation, maximal and actual efficiency of PSII, chlorophyll synthesis, as well as the stimulation of the accumulation of violaxanthin cycle components and increase in non-photochemical quenching were the strongest in cFedef+Cad plants, otherwise these parameters changed parallel to the iron deficiency of leaves. Tendency of changes in thylakoid composition were similar under Cad treatments and strong iron deficiency: particularly PSI and LHCII decreased. Therefore, the development of the photosynthetic apparatus under Cd stress was mainly influenced by the Cd-induced strong iron deficiency, while leaf growth was affected primarily by the presence of Cd.

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Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Authors:
Juan C. Uríszar
,
Anahí Gaspar-Pérez
,
Roser Granero
,
Lucero Munguía
,
Milagros L. Lara-Huallipe
,
Bernat Mora-Maltas
,
Isabel Baenas
,
Mikel Etxandi
,
Mónica Gómez-Peña
,
Laura Moragas
,
Claudia Sisquellas
,
Fernando Fernández-Aranda
, and
Susana Jiménez-Murcia

Abstract

Background and aims

Self-exclusion in gambling disorder (GD) is considered a measure to decrease the negative consequences of gambling behavior. Under a formal self-exclusion program, gamblers request to be banned from accessing to the gambling venues or online gambling.

The aims of the present study are

1) to determine sociodemographic characteristics of a clinical sample of seeking-treatment patients with GD who are self-excluded before arriving at the care unit; 2) to identify personality traits and general psychopathology of this clinical population; 3) to analyze the response to treatment, in terms of relapses and dropouts.

Methods

1,416 adults seeking treatment for GD, who are self-excluded completed screening tools to identify GD symptomatology, general psychopathology, and personality traits. The treatment outcome was measured by dropout and relapses.

Results

Self-exclusion was significantly related to female sex and a high sociodemographic status. Also, it was associated with a preference for strategic and mixed gambling, longest duration and severity of the disorder, high rates of general psychopathology, more presence of illegal acts and high sensation seeking rates. In relation to treatment, self-exclusion was associated with low relapse rates.

Conclusions

The patients who self-exclude before seeking treatment have a specific clinical profile, including high sociodemographic status, highest severity of GD, more years of evolution of the disorder and high emotional distress rates; however, these patients' presents better response to treatment. Clinically, it could be expected that this strategy could be used as a facilitating variable in the therapeutic process.

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