Authors:Sz. Szilágyi, Béla Merkely, L. Molnár, E. Zima, I. Osztheimer, E. M. Végh, and L. Gellér
We describe a method to stabilize CS lead position using stent implantation in a CS side branch to anchor the electrode to the wall of the vein, in cases of intraoperative or postoperative lead dislocation, unstable lead position and phrenic nerve stimulation (PNS).
403 patients were treated with stenting. After finding the desired lead position bare metal coronary stent was introduced via another guide wire, but in the same CS sheath. The stent was deposited 5–35 mm proximal to the tip of the electrode with a pressure of 6 to 14 atmospheres.
Mechanical damage of the CS side branch or pericardial effusion was not observed. During follow-up (median 39, 23–48, max. 82 months) re-operation was necessary in only two patients because of high pacing threshold, while repositioning with ablation catheter was performed in 7 cases because of PNS. Impedance measurements did not suggest lead insulation failure. Transvenous extraction of stented CS leads was successful after 3, 18 and 49 months, while 4 leads were extracted easily during heart transplantation.
Stent implantation to stabilize CS lead position seems to be effective and safe for the prevention and treatment of CS lead dislocation in special cases.
Authors:G. Széplaki, T. Tahin, SZ. Szilágyi, I. Osztheimer, T. Bettenbuch, M. Srej, B. Merkely, and L. Gellér
Pace-mapping is an important tool during the ablation of premature ventricular complexes (PVCs) or ventricular tachycardia. The automated pace mapping system software (PaSo module, CARTO XP v9, Biosense/Webster) allows direct comparisons between paced ECGs and the acquired PVC ECG during ablation in a reasonable time. We report our experience with the automated pace mapping system during the ablation of PVCs in the left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT). A 67-year-old male patient was referred to our Department because of recurrent resting atypical chest pain. A 12 lead ECG showed frequent PVCs with LVOT morphology and a 24-hour Holter ECG revealed, that 31% of the total beats were monomorphic PVCs. We decided to perform a radiofrequency catheter ablation. After recording an electroanatomic and an activation map during PVCs, pace-mapping was performed with the PaSo module of the CARTO system. The best percent match area (89.0%) was found in the LVOT, where we performed multiple ablations and PVCs disappeared. According to our initial experience, automated pace-mapping systems might be useful during ablation of PVCs or ventricular tachycardias. Appropriate use of the software allows more objective and faster comparisons compared with conventional manual techniques.
Authors:Valentina Kutyifa, B. Merkely, V. K. Nagy, A. Apor, E. Zima, and L. Gellér
Real-time three-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography (RT 3D TEE) is a novel method providing high spatial and temporal resolution imaging of the heart. During pulmonary vein isolation procedures visualization of the atria, interatrial septum and the ablation catheter is of high importance to increase safety. RT 3D TEE might be a useful tool to guide left atrial ablations.
A 53-year-old man was referred to our hospital to undergo pulmonary vein isolation procedure for the treatment of symptomatic drug-refractory paroxysmal atrial fibrillation. The transseptal puncture was performed under RT 3D TEE-guidance with direct visualization of the interatrial septum and fossa ovalis. RT 3D TEE provided a three-dimensional view of the puncture with “tenting”-sign and the transseptal needle-fossa ovalis angle enhancing the manipulation of the ablation catheter within the left atrium. The ablation catheter was visualized and tracked during the procedure. No adverse events occurred during the procedure.
Our case report demonstrates the feasibility of RT 3D TEE-guided atrial fibrillation ablation procedures. Safety profile might be improved by the real-time direct view of fossa ovalis. Decrease in fluoroscopy time can be achieved by visualizing the ablation catheter during the procedure.
Authors:H. Vágó, P. Takács, A. Tóth, L. Gellér, Sz. Szilágyi, L. Molnár, V. Kutyifa, T. Simor, and Béla Merkely
Cardiac electromechanical resynchronisation therapy (CRT) is an effective non-pharmacological treatment of patients suffering from drug refractory heart failure. However, approximately 20–30% of patients are non-responder. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) may play significant role in clarifying many questions in this patient population. Forty-five patients, suffering from severe drug refractory heart failure, underwent CMR before applying CRT. Left ventricular end-diastolic, end-systolic volumes, ejection fraction, myocardial mass, wall motion disturbances, localisation of non-viable myocardium were determined. Left ventricular dyssynchrony was determined by illustrating wall-time thickening in short-axis slices of left ventricle from basis to apex. CMR-proved underlying heart disease were postinfarction heart failure, dilated cardiomyopathy and non-compaction cardiomyopathy in 62, 27 and in 11%, respectively. Mean left ventricular ejection fraction was 24.5±10%, intraventricular dyssynchrony was 200±78 ms. In four patients, requiring surgical revascularisation after unsuccessful coronary sinus electrode implantation, optimal position for epicardial screw-in electrode was selected. According to the results of CMR, biventricular device was not implanted in 7 patients. During the follow-up of the 38 patients, 5 patients (13.16%) were non-responders, despite the approximately 22% non-responder ratio in our whole patient population treated by CRT but without performing previous CMR examination. In this patient population CMR may have a significant role in the selection of responder patient population.
Authors:N Szegedi, E Zima, M Clemens, A Szekely, RG Kiss, G Szeplaki, L Geller, B Merkely, Z Csanadi, and G Duray
Catheter ablation is a proven therapy of focal atrial tachycardia. However limited information is available about the additional value of electroanatomical over conventional mapping methods for this specific arrhythmia.
Consecutive catheter ablation procedures of FAT were analyzed in two cardiology centres. Only conventional mapping was used in 30 of the 60 procedures whereas additionally CARTO mapping was performed in another 30 procedures. Acute, six-month success rate, and procedural data were analyzed.
Localization of ectopic foci is congruent with previously published data. There was no statistically significant difference between procedure time and fluoroscopy time using additionally CARTO mapping, compared to conventional mapping only. Acute success rate was higher in procedures guided by CARTO mapping than in procedures based on conventional mapping (27/30 vs. 18/30, p = 0.0081). During the 6-month follow-up period there was a better outcome (p = 0.045) in case of CARTO guided procedures (success: 11 cases, partial success: 12 cases, failure: 4 cases) compared to conventional mapping (success: 4 cases, partial success: 18 cases, failure: 7 cases).
Catheter ablation of focal atrial tachycardias using the CARTO electroanatomical mapping system seems to provide higher acute and 6-month success rate compared to ablation using conventional mapping methods only.
Authors:E. Kovács, D. Pilecky, Z. Szakál-Tóth, A. Fekete-Győr, V.A. Gyarmathy, L. Gellér, B. Hauser, J. Gál, B. Merkely, and E. Zima
We investigated the effect of age on post-cardiac arrest treatment outcomes in an elderly population, based on a local database and a systemic review of the literature.
Data were collected retrospectively from medical charts and reports. Sixty-one comatose patients, cooled to 32–34 °C for 24 h, were categorized into three groups: younger group (≤65 years), older group (66–75 years), and very old group (>75 years). Circumstances of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), patients' characteristics, post-resuscitation treatment, hemodynamic monitoring, neurologic outcome and survival were compared across age groups. Kruskal-Wallis test, Chi-square test and binary logistic regression (BLR) were applied. In addition, a literature search of PubMed/Medline database was performed to provide a background.
Age was significantly associated with having a cardiac arrest on a monitor and a history of hypertension. No association was found between age and survival or neurologic outcome. Age did not affect hemodynamic parameter changes during target temperature management (TTM), except mean arterial pressure (MAP). Need of catecholamine administration was the highest among very old patients. During the literature review, seven papers were identified. Most studies had a retrospective design and investigated interventions and outcome, but lacked unified age categorization. All studies reported worse survival in the elderly, although old survivors showed a favorable neurologic outcome in most of the cases.
There is no evidence to support the limitation of post-cardiac arrest therapy in the aging population. Furthermore, additional prospective studies are needed to investigate the characteristics and outcome of post-cardiac arrest therapy in this patient group.