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The aim of the project was to determine the grain quality, technological properties and baking values of ‘Perenne’ (registered perennial rye cultivar), obtained through the interspecific crossing of Secale cereale L. and S. montanum Guss., and to compare with annual rye varieties. The crude protein content of ‘Perenne’ grains was higher (‘Perenne’: 18%, annual varieties: 12%) and contained more crude fibre, crude fat and ash than the annual varieties. Regarding the quantity and composition of amino acids, ‘Perenne’ showed values between S. montanum (high amino acid content) and S. cereale (lower amino acid content). While its farinograph softening value was inferior to those of the annual varieties, its flour mixed with wheat flour outperformed them. In terms of other properties (falling number, farinograph water absorption capacity, baking test) of ‘Perenne’ flour, whether in mixtures or in pure form, was not left behind the annual varieties. Perennial rye can also be used for bread making since it has great grain composition.

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Identification and classification of numerous Festucaspecies is still a difficult problem due to the close morphological resemblance. The most difficult fine fescues to identify belong to the Festucaovinaaggregate, which is the largest group in the genus Festuca. Many taxons are considered to be separate species based on quantitative taxonomic characters, differences in ploidy level or the structure of sclerenchyma cells. In order to evaluate the taxonomic value of DNA-based markers, sequence analysis of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS1-5.8S-ITS2) region and the chloroplast trnL (UAA) intron was performed in the ten most problematic fine fescues belonging to the Festuca ovinaaggregate. Intraspecific ITS variants were found in a single case while in other cases only intragenomic ITS polymorphisms were detected with 1-2 ambiguous positions. Among the sequences of the trnL (UAA) intron even intragenomic polymorphisms were not detected in any of the Festucaspecies studied. Thus, the results do not support the species status of these ten taxa.

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Molecular polymorphism of six species of Thysanoptera of both sexes, collected from different locations and host plants in Hungary was studied by using RAPD-PCR technique. The specimens were classified according to sampling sites (Gödöllo, Nagykovácsi and Valkó), host plants (Lathyrus tuberosus, Medicago sativa, Taraxacum officinale, Trifolium pratense), sexes, and larvae in case of Aeolothrips intermedius. On the basis of the total of 103 fragments generated by 15 RAPD primers the genetic distances were calculated by cluster analysis using simple matching method. The dendrogram resulted in two main groups: Aeolothripidae (Aeolothrips intermedius) and Thripidae (Frankliniella intonsa, Kakothrips robustus, Odontothrips confusus, Thrips dilatatus and T. tabaci). Within the family Thripidae two subgroups were observed including (i) F. intonsa, T. dilatatus and T. tabaci, and (ii) K. robustus and O. confusus. Two population-specific and one sex-linked fragments were identified by the RAPD primers, OPQ14, NO11 and OPA08, respectively.

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Acta Agronomica Hungarica
Authors:
D. Polgári
,
B. Kalapos
,
V. Tisza
,
L. Kovács
,
B. Kerti
,
L. Heszky
, and
E. Kiss

The aim of this study was to characterize a gene associated with ripening in strawberry, a non-climacteric fruit. Differently expressed transcripts of candidate genes functioning in fruit development and ripening were identified from strawberry ( Fragaria × ananassa Duch.) in four ripening stages using the cDNA-AFLP method. The cDNA fragment designated C11M32M003 was selected from the putative ripening-related genes for further analysis. This transcript accumulated in the green receptacle, and the achene, but gene expression decreased in both tissues in parallel with the progress of ripening (Balogh, 2006). In silico analysis revealed that both the cDNA-AFLP fragment (C11M32M003) and the full-length cDNA AY695666 showed over 60% homology at the nucleotide level with two gene groups found in various plant species, including Arabidopsis thaliana . One of the candidate groups consisted of NITRILASE sequences thought to be related to auxin biosynthesis. As an alternative, a lesser known gene group named SPIRAL was suggested. The results of the detailed bioinformatic comparisons presented in this paper prove that the strawberry sequence analysed belongs to the SPIRAL gene family.

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The aim of this paper was to find possible link between molecular and morphological similarities of 38 Hungarian white grape varieties. Three aspects of morphological and molecular similarity were assessed in the study: comparison of the ordered variety pairs, assessment of molecular and morphological mean similarity differences and separation of varieties into similar groups by divisive cluster analysis to define (DIANA). Molecular similarity was calculated from binary data based on allele sizes obtained in DNA analysis. DNA fingerprints were determined at 9 SSR loci recommended by the European GrapeGen06 project. Morphological similarity was calculated on the basis of quantitative morphological descriptors. Morphological and molecular similarity values were ordered and categorized after pairwise comparison. Overall correlation was found to be weak but case by case assessment of the variety pairs confirmed some coincidence of molecular and morphological similarity. General similarity position of each variety was characterized by Mean Similarity Index (MSI). It was calculated as the mean of n-1 pair similarity values of the variety concerned. Varieties were ordered and compared by the difference of the index. Five varieties had low morphological and high molecular MSI meaning that they share several SSR marker alleles with the others but seems relatively distinct according to the expression of their morphological traits. Divisive cluster analysis was carried out to find similar groups. Eight and twelve cluster solutions proved to be sufficient to distinct varieties. Morphological and molecular similarity groups partly coincided according to the results. Several clusters reflected parent offspring relations but molecular clustering gave more realistic results concerning pedigree.

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As DNA methylation patterns are inherited (‘epigenetic memory’) gsh I transgenic poplar ( Populus × canescens ) clones (11 ggs and 6 Lgl ) were treated with the DNA demethylating drug DHAC (5,6-dihydro-5′-azacytidine hydrochloride) at 10 −4 M for 7 days in order to study acquired plant molecular defense mechanisms in novel plant sources. In this study, the response of relative gene expression levels of transgene gsh I and poplar gene gsh 1 to DHAC treatment were analyzed by qRT-PCR ( q uantitative r everse t ranscriptase PCR). High expression levels of transgene gsh I were observed in the 6 Lgl clone (13.5-fold increase) compared to 11 ggs (1.0) sample. The expression level doubled (1.8-fold increase) in the DHAC-treated 6 Lgl samples but not in the 11 ggs clone (0.4-fold). Contrary to this, the relative copy number of transgene gsh I in the 6 Lgl clone was found to be 60% less (1.0) than in the 11 ggs sample (1.6). Relative expression level of endogenous poplar gene gsh 1 showed significantly higher responsiveness to DHAC-induced demethylation than the transgene gsh I with the highest expression level in the untransformed WT poplar (19.7-fold increase) compared to transformed clones of 6 Lgl (8.7-fold increase) and 11 ggs (2.5-fold increase), respectively. Competition in the reactivation capacity between transgene gsh I and poplar gsh 1 of 6 Lgl clone was also observed as the relative gene expression level of transgene gsh I increased from a high relative expression level (13.5) up by about twofold (1.8 times) rate (to 23.7) compared to poplar gsh 1 gene that increased by an 8.7 increment from a lower level (1.6 rel. expression) to 13.9.

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