We discuss determination of jumps for functions with generalized bounded variation. The questions are motivated by A. Gelb
and E. Tadmor , F. M�ricz  and  and Q. L. Shi and X. L. Shi . Corollary 1 improves the results proved in B. I.
Golubov  and G. Kvernadze .
This paper summarizes the history of and information on bovine herpesvirus type 4 (BoHV-4) from the first isolation to the most recent results. For almost twenty years BoHV-4 has been considered a typical herpes ‘orphan’ virus, which infects several species but causes no illness. The latest experiments revealed the close relationship of this virus with the immune system and other tissues. The virus was even considered as a possible candidate for a vector vaccine. BoHV-4 as a strange herpesvirus has several features which are not characteristic of other herpesviruses, such as several latency sites, persistence in serum, dividing cells necessary for virus replication, and the wide host range. In addition to describing the main features of the virion, replication, clinical signs, nomenclature problems, this review intends to concentrate on the new and strange results coming out from several laboratories worldwide. It is also suggested that because the virus combines several properties of various herpesvirus subfamilies and because of its close relationship with the immune system, it may deserve further attention as a representative of a potentially new genus within the Gammaherpesvirinae subfamily.
A questionnaire study was performed involving 76 farms with a total of 380,207 pigs to assess the welfare of pigs kept in Hungary based on the animal welfare legislation of the European Union. Most significant deficiencies were found in the fulfilment of the provisions relating to space requirements, the stall microclimate and the behavioural needs of the animals.
The objectives of this study were (a) to assess the ovulatory response and embryo production of Hungarian Merino ewes after superovulation, (b) to investigate the factors influencing the efficiency of embryo transfer (ET) in Hungarian Merino ewes, (c) to compare the results of two ovarian stimulation protocols (PMSG and PMSG+FSH treatment) in Hungarian Merino ewes, and (d) to study how superovulation, laparoscopic insemination and surgical embryo retrieval (ER) affect the subsequent reproduction of Hungarian Merino donor females after an ET programme. There was no significant difference between the ovarian stimulation protocols in the ratio of donor ewes responding to superovulation nor in the average number of corpora lutea. However, the number of transferable embryos recovered per donor ewe was higher in the PMSG+FSH group. The proportion of transferable embryos, unfertilised oocytes and degenerated embryos did not differ between the treatment protocols. The total pregnancy rate was 53.4% (179/335). Neither the developmental stage of the embryo nor the number of transferred embryos affect the implantation of embryos. However, the increased number of transferred embryos positively influenced the pregnancy rate. No difference was found in the pregnancy rate between synchronised and nonsynchronised groups of recipients. Thirty-six out of 45 donor ewes (80%) became pregnant within one year after the ET programme, indicating that ovarian stimulation and surgical ER did not affect adversely their reproduction.
We show that it is consistent that there is a hereditarily separable, 0-dimensional T2 space X of cardinality ω1 such that for each uncountable subspace Y of X there is a continuous bijection φ : Y → X and there is a partition (Yi)i<n of Y into finitely many pieces such that φ ↾ Yi is a homeomorphism for each i < n.
A bukolikus műfaj allegorizáló fölfogása, mely Nero korában általánossá vált, soktekinte tben elszegényedést hozott Vergilius bonyolult jelképteremtő művészetéhez képest. Calpurniusnak azonban éppen a pásztori allegóriában rejlő lehetőségeket kiaknázva sikerült a pusztán reproduktív imitáció kötelmein túllépnie; Corydon alakjában saját érvényesülési törekvéseiről, a mecenatúra visszásságairól, a költők sanyarú helyzetéről rajzolt keserűen önironikus képet. A IV. ecloga nem pusztán Vergilius, Ovidius és más költők allúziók megidézte szövegeit fordítja visszájára, hanem az augustusi kor irodalmának olyan kulcsfogalmait is, mint a rusticitas, paupertas, simplicitas, vates, ezáltal pedig saját korát Augustus eszményített uralkodásának tükrében szembesíti fogyatékosságaival. A Nero aranykorát magasztaló dalverseny, melyet gyakran vizsgáltak a kerettörténetből kiemelve a gátlástalan adulatio dokumentumaként, csak ebben a szövegkörnyezetben nyeri el teljes értelmét.
Climate change brings along trend-like changes as well as changes in the temporal variations in environmental conditions which interact with the biological dynamics of ecological systems. Therefore, only studies covering several decades may unveil long term trends in ecological systems, such as in animal communities. To demonstrate if recent climatic changes have caused fundamental changes in the structure of a key arthropod community, I studied the long-term dynamics of ant colonies for 37 years on a sandy grassland in central Hungary. To be able to monitor colonies – the natural units of ant communities – with the possible least disturbance, I applied two grids of a total of 80 slate plates as artificial nesting sites. Prior to the presented study, a well-defined spatial ant community structure had been identified in the studied habitat, which consisted of three species groups (dune top, transitional and dune slack groups), occupying different habitat patches. During the study period 2813 nests of 11 ant species were recorded under the slates. Over the 37 years, community pattern markedly changed, dune slack species disappeared from the studied plots, while the frequency of drought-tolerant dune top species increased by a significant trend. No significant trend was observed in the case of the transitional species group. On the species population level, two species, Lasius niger and Formica cunicularia, showed an intensive population decline; while the Plagiolepis taurica population significantly increased and spatially joined the transitional species group in the dune slack in the second half of the project. These changes led to a major decline in species richness and a homogenization of species composition across habitat patches. Multiple correlation analyses revealed that the depletion of groundwater had the strongest relationship with these population trends. The study indicates that climate change can be linked to a fundamental change in the community structure of major ecosystem actors.
Biological invasion is a crucial problem in the world because of its negative consequences for protected areas. The degradation stage of vegetation might affect the success of invasion. One of the most abundant and threatening invasive species is the common milkweed (Asclepias syriaca L.) which has invaded already 23 countries of Europe and in several habitat types its further spreading is promoted by climate change. Pannonian sand grassland is one of the most threatened habitat by common milkweed invasion. Therefore, invasion in sand grassland vegetation is an important issue. However, the effects of the invasive plant in the open sand grassland are rather controversial. In order to clarify the existing contradictory results, the study was carried out in a strictly protected area, near Fülöpháza (Hungary) in a reserve core area in a UNESCO biosphere reserve. Microcoenological study was applied to determinate the fine-scale community characteristics of non-invaded and invaded stands in natural and seminatural vegetation and data were processed by Juhász-Nagy's information theory models. Shannon diversity of species combinations (compositional diversity) which describes the ways of the coexistence of species, and the number of realized species combinations were used for measuring beta diversity. Differences between stands were analyzed by two-way ANOVA. The maximum compositional diversity of species and main life-forms (annuals, perennials and cryptogams) did not differ significantly between the non-invaded and invaded stands. In contrast, significantly larger characteristic areas of compositional diversity were detected in the invaded stands. Based on these results, it could be concluded that diversity of species combinations did not change but those values have shifted to coarser scales in case of invaded stands. The direction of this change suggests a kind of impoverishment in the presence of Asclepias. Thus, it is worth mentioning from the invasion management point of view that protection of the habitats against disturbance is a more cost-effective and successful way than protection against the establishment or extirpation of invasive species, since disturbance facilitates the invasions throughout the impoverishment of the community.
The conductivities of binary mixtures of glycerine and water were measured at 20C by means of a transient method. The equation
describing the correlation between concentration and thermal conductivity was determined. The equation can be used for determining
concentrations in mixtures. The results show that (1) the error in the determination of the molar concentration of water in
mixtures is less than 1%, (2) the time of measurement is 1 s, (3) this method can be used for on-line analysis in production