The authors screened 34 large cattle herds for the presence of Mycoplasma bovis infection by examining slaughtered cattle for macroscopic lung lesions, by culturing M. bovis from lung lesions and at the same time by testing sera for the presence of antibodies against M. bovis. Among the 595 cattle examined, 33.9% had pneumonic lesions, mycoplasmas were isolated from 59.9% of pneumonic lung samples, and 10.9% of sera from those animals contained antibodiesto M. bovis. In 25.2% of the cases M. bovis was isolated from lungs with no macroscopic lesions. The proportion of seropositive herds was 64.7%. The average seropositivity rate of individuals was 11.3% but in certain herds it exceeded 50%. A probability model was developed for examining the relationship among the occurrence of pneumonia, the isolation of M. bovis from the lungs and the presence of M. bovis specific antibodies in sera.
Authors:Mária Höhn, L. Hufnagel, Klára Cseke and G. Vendramin
We investigated the diversity pattern of nine Swiss stone pine (Pinus cembra L.) populations along the Carpathian range including the High Tatras, by using six chloroplast DNA microsatellites (cpSSR). Our aim was to detect genetically distinct regions by clustering of populations, and to tackle possible historical colonization routes. Our analysis referred to an investigated geographical range with the two most distant populations situated at about 500 air km. We found that the most diverse populations are situated at the two edges of the investigated part, in the Retezat Mts. (South Carpathians) and the High Tatras, and diversity decreases towards the populations of the Eastern Carpathians. Hierarchical clustering and NMDS revealed that the populations of the South Carpathians with the Tatras form a distinct cluster, significantly separated from those of the Eastern Carpathians. Moreover, based on the most variable chloroplast microsatellites, the four populations of the two range edges are not significantly different. Our results, supported also by palynological and late glacial macrofossil evidences, indicate refugial territories within the Retezat Mts. that conserved rich haplotype composition. From this refugial territory Pinus cembra might have colonized the Eastern Carpathians, and this was accompanied by a gradual decrease in population diversity. Populations of the High Tatras might have had the same role in the colonizing events of the Carpathians, as positive correlation was detected among populations lying from each other at a distance of 280 km, the maximum distance between neighbouring populations.
Authors:L. Hufnagel, Z. Mészáros, MÁRTA Gaál and A. Ferenczy
In our present study we aimed to recognize the temporal and spatial patterns of Noctuinae communities (Lep.Noctuidae)of four differently managed apple orchards laying in different localities of Hungary.Data were obtained by light trap collection. The quantitative data resulting from our investigations were analyzed by multivariate methods and were also analyzed by their diversity characteristics.As a result connections were found regarding the diversities of species and individuals,the patterns of occurrence and phenological properties.The studies were based on 8497 individuals of 39 species.
Authors:L. Hufnagel, MÁRTA Gaál, BRIGITTA Őszi and Z. Mészáros
The knowledge of the population dynamical characteristics of the pests fundamentally determines the success of the plant protection prognosis. In this paper we examine the possibilities of the utilization of the information about the population dynamical stability that we get from field examination data. We take into account neighbouring data pairs from data series regarding the change of insect density counted at stated intervals. Using these pairs of values – from the tendency of the absolute and relative changes – we can draw conclusion on the stability of the individual density values or on the stability of the whole dynamical pattern.
Authors:B. Morgun, A. Richter, D. Deshmukh, V. Stepanyuk, Katalin Kálai, G. Nagy, L. Hufnagel and Noémi Lukács
Expression of antibodies or antibody fragments in plants is a useful tool for producing active antibody derivatives for diagnostic or pharmaceutical purposes as well as for immunomodulation. We investigated the effect of cellular expression site on the stability and yield of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA)-specific single-chain Fv-fragments (scFv) in transgenic tobacco. Two antibodies (J2 and P6) belonging to the V23(J558) heavy chain variable gene family but differing in the light chain variable domain were used. scFvs were targeted to the cytoplasm - with or without anchoring them in the plasma membrane -, into the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and to the apoplast. Although high mRNA concentrations were detected in all cases, scFv proteins accumulated only when scFvs were made ER-resident by appropriate signal sequences. When the ER retention signal was removed to allow scFv-secretion to the apoplast, no scFv-proteins were detected. Despite the strong homology of the VH-sequences of J2 and P6 antibodies, only P6 provided a stable scFv scaffold for intracytoplasmic expression. J2-scFv could not be stabilised either by adding a C-terminal stabilisation signal or by anchoring the protein on the cytoplasmic side of the plasma membrane (PM). It was found that dsRNA-specific J2-scFvs are active in vivo and enhance PotatoVirus Y induced symptoms in infected tobacco. This is the first report describing the expression and biological effect of RNA-specific antibodies in plants.