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Four maize hybrids bred at the Cereal Research Non-Profit Company in Szeged were registered at the National Institute for Agricultural Quality Control (OMMI) during the period 2001-2004. The registration of five Szeged hybrids is expected on the territory of the European Union in 2005-2006. The hybrids are accompanied by specific production technological guides for commercial production based on the results of agronomy trials, so that the genetic potential of the hybrids can be utilised in practical farming to the highest possible extent. The specific agronomic traits of hybrids with different vegetation periods and genotypes are investigated. If a maize hybrid is to be recommended to farmers, it is necessary to know not only its yield potential, but also its yield stability. For this reason, investigations are also made on the effect of soil and climate on the grain yield potential of each hybrid individually.

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Last year pepper growers observed symptoms referring to virus-infection in pepper plantations in plastic tunnels. Infected plants showed mosaic symptoms or mottling of the leaves, while on the fruits necrotic spots developed. These symptoms referred to a tobamovirus infection. Collected samples were examined by serological and pathological methods, followed by the biological characterisation of the isolates. For serological studies the DAS-ELISA method was used, in which the pathogen was identified as pepper mild mottle tobamovirus. During the pathological examination different host-plants have been used including some pepper varieties containing different L genes (L + –L 4). It was found, that the Hungarian isolates belonged to the P 1,2 pathotype and were closely related to the Spanish isolate (PMMV-S). PCR- studies proved the presence of the PMMoV P 1,2 pathotype in Hungary as well.

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A new method has been elaborated to estimate the length of the vegetation period of new maize hybrids. According to this method, the length of the vegetation period is expressed by the FAO number, calculated from the following traits:

  1. 1. 50% silking
  2. 2. Grain moisture when the average grain moisture of maturity group standards is 25%
  3. 3. Grain moisture when the average grain moisture of maturity group standards is 20%
  4. 4. Grain moisture at harvest.
The standards of the neighbouring maturity groups are also included in each experiment.The results obtained with this method were compared to the heat unit (GDD) method and to other methods of calculating FAO numbers. The new method has several advantages over previous techniques based on moisture content alone: the fluctuation of the estimated FAO number over locations and years decreased, as did the significant differences between the calculated FAO numbers; the reliability and precision of the new FAO number is less dependent on the date of harvest (moisture content); and the FAO numbers calculated with the new method are in the closest correlation with the heat unit estimates.

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Abstract  

Various methods (e.g. spreading resistance and C-V measurements, neutron activation analysis, SIMS) have been used to determine concentration distributions of antimony dopant and charge carriers in single and double epitaxial silicon layers. Comparing the results obtained by the methods, an increased dopant diffusion process could be observed in the epitaxial layer during neutron irradiation of the sample, which arose as a systematic error in the NAA method. The origin of the deviations is discussed.

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Cereal Research Communications
Authors: B. Purar, G. Bekavac, Đ. Jocković, É. Toldi Tóth, L. Kálmán, E. Raspudić, and M. Dimitrijević

Corn reddening (CR) was observed for the first time in Serbia in 1957. After that, it occurred periodically, mainly in the region of Banat. In 2002 and 2003, a severe outbreak happened in late July / early August. Initial symptoms were the occurrence of a red-violet color on the leaves, leaf sheaths, husks and the bare portion of internodes. The symptoms typically appeared at the milk maturity stage and the discoloration was the most intensive at top leaves, around the main vein and along the edges, from leaf base to tip. Soon after the occurrence of the symptoms, the affected plants wilted, the foliage dried rapidly, the red pigmentation disappeared for a greater part and finally plant died off. The ears were underdeveloped and gummous and kernels were shriveled and unfilled.Several experiments were conducted to determine a possible connection between CR occurrence and the studied factors. Corn stunt spiroplasma was not identified in the CR-affected plants, and there was no apparent relationship between CR and soil fertility or nematode species identified in soil and plant samples. Insecticide-treated plots had lower CR incidence than untreated (control) plots, indicating that biotic factors could be involved.

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Orvosi Hetilap
Authors: L. János Kálmán, Xénia Gonda, Lajos Kemény, Zoltán Rihmer, and Zoltán Janka

A pikkelysömör kialakulásában és progressziójában a betegek és az orvosok jelentős hányada a stresszt tartja az egyik legfontosabb rizikótényezőnek. Mivel a stresszor és hatásai is egyaránt szubjektumfüggőek és így nehezen mérhetőek, sokáig csupán kevés, a stressznek a betegség kialakulásában játszott szerepét vizsgáló tanulmány készült. Az elmúlt években azonban egyre több nívós, objektív mérésekkel alátámasztott vizsgálat született, amelyek új, értékes adatokkal szolgáltak a háttérben zajló patofiziológiai folyamatok megértéséhez. A szerzők a szakirodalomban fellelhető stresszexpozíciót és -percepciót befolyásoló pszichológiai (alexithymia, személyiség, hangulat) és a stresszválaszt szabályozó biológiai (kortizol-, adrenalinszintek, neurogén gyulladás) tényezőket elemző vizsgálatokat integratív, pszichoszomatikus szemlélettel tekintik át, és bemutatják, hogy az eddig főleg csak tapasztalati szinten bizonyított kapcsolatot egyre több modern, magas színvonalú kutatási eredmény igazolja. Ismerve a stresszcsökkentő pszichofarmakológiai és pszichoterápiás intervenciók sikerességét a pikkelysömör kezelésében és a betegek életminőségének javításában, a szerzők bíznak abban, hogy tanulmányuk hozzájárul a pszichoszomatikus szemlélet szélesebb körű elterjedéséhez a mindennapi bőrgyógyászati gyakorlatban. Orv. Hetil., 2014, 155(24), 939–948.

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