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The Hungarian National Museum has acquired a specially shaped object. The speciality of the artefact was its form and the Chi-Rho, an Early Christian symbol on the middle of it (Fig. 1).The artefact from an unknown Pannonian provenance was made of bronze. On the basis of the positioning of the Chi-Rho the artefact was likely to have been used while in the vertical position.Taking into account the current physical state of the object, there is a high probability that it was placed on a bowl of an Intercisa III or IV type helmet. Since the uniqueness of the object also enables further possibilities for use, the final solution could only be expected if a similar object will be found.In that period, one should be aware of the helmet decorations with Chi-Rho in case of cavalry helmets, as well. The next group of helmet decorations with Chi-Rho are the ones on the nasal. Hitherto it occurs only in one case, among the gilded silver plates, which covered an Intercisa III type iron helmet, hid and found in the fortress of Alsóhetény (Fig. 9).In the last ten years a new group of objects, decorated with a Chi-Rho have been identified. There are two main groups within the propeller shaped helmet decorationsGroup 1: (Fig. 10)Those mounts belong to the first group, which made from thin bronze plates (0.4–1 mm thick). Every pieces were gilded, the Chi-Rho was framed, and

  1. the lower arm, under the medallion with the Chi-Rho, was turned over the edge of the crest above the propeller, the ending is short the Chi-Rho is in a round frame, which could be bead-moulding, laureate or simple frame.
Group 2:Those mounts belong to the second group, which made from bronze plates thicker than 1 mm. These pieces were also gilded, and
  1. the lower arm, under the medallion with the Chi-Rho was not turned over the edge of the crest, hence this part of the mount survived as a flat plate above the propeller, the ending is prolonged.
Within these main characteristics two more subgroups could be isolated:
  1. Group 2/a (Fig. 11)
In the Group 2/a the Chi-Rho is framed
  1. Group 2/b (Fig. 12)
In the case of Group 2/b the Chi-Rho is not framed.On the basis of information about dating, the widespread usage of the helmet decorations with Chi-Rho can be followed from the second third of the fourth to the first quarter of the fifth century.

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This paper suggests a simple method to determine the global coordinates of the angular velocity and the angular acceleration of a body segment determined by the coordinates of minimum three markers. There are commonly used calculations for the angular quantities basing on the “hypothesis” of planar motion. The usage of approximate methods can result in quantitative and qualitative errors that may completely disort the reality. The method mentioned here is theoretically absolutely correct and can be well used for smoothing noisy data.

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Both the activated and the non-activated alkaline polymerization ofε-caprolactam were studied by DSC. In the latter case, a curve-resolving method was applied to separate the superimposed polymerization and crystallization processes. The counter-ion effect was taken into account in the complexing of the initiator cations by crown compounds.

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Certain classes of bioactive compounds can be separated using planar chromatography. Some biological effects (e.g. antibacterial) of these compounds can be investigated directly by examining the growth of a test organism on a specially treated sorbent of thin layer chromatography (TLC). A special method of detection, direct bioautography, is suitable for studying the antimicrobial activity of plant extracts of natural origin by using TLC. Zones of inhibition are visualised by use of a dehydrogenase-activity-detecting, tetrazol-type reagent. Zones of inhibition appeared as pale spots separating well from the dark background. The antibacterial effect of the main essential oil components of some Thymus taxa, as well as that of two antibiotics (streptomycin sulphate and gentamycin) known and applied in practice was investigated against plant pathogenic bacteria. Results showed that thyme essential oil and its components inhibited the growth of test bacteria, but not so considerably as the antibiotics applied. Compositions of the essential oils were analysed by gas chromatography (GC). It could be verified that among the essential oil components, thymol and carvacrol had the strongest inhibitory effect.

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Abstract  

The thermal behaviour of ordered kaolinites from Hungary and Australia intercalated with potassium acetate, cesium acetate and urea has been investigated by simultaneous TG-DTG-DTA, TG-MS, Raman microscopy and XRD. Remarkable changes in the thermal decomposition pattern of the intercalates were obtained as a function of the nature of the intercalating re-agents. Replacing the potassium cation to cesium leads to a change in the OH environments resulting in a more complicated dehydroxylation pattern. The urea intercalates can be decomposed completely without dehydroxylating the mineral, although further treatments are necessary to restore the original d-spacing.

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Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry
Authors:
M. Kocsis
,
L. Nyikos
,
I. Szentpétery
,
D. Horváth
,
J. Kecskeméti
,
A. Lovas
,
T. Pajkossy
, and
L. Pócs

Abstract  

An attempt was made to detect neutrons from the so-called cold nuclear fusion of deuterium in palladium and titanium, both saturated with deuterium: the palladium electrolytically and the titanium from gas phase. The measurements were performed in a tunnel located 30 m deep in limestone, using3He filled proportional counters surrounded by water for neutron moderation. In all cases the detected neutron flux was practically equal to the background level. Very low upper limits to the neutron source strength were obtained from this experiment: 2×10–4 n.s–1g–1 Pd and 4.3×10–4 n.s–1g–1 Ti on the 1 level.

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Acta Alimentaria
Authors:
A. Blázovics
,
E. Fehér
,
I. Kocsis
,
E. Rapavi
,
E. Székely
,
L. Váli
, and
K. Szentmihályi

In general, biologically active polyphenolic compounds have indirect lipid lowering effects, antioxidant properties and they can also eliminate the accumulated toxic metal elements in the liver in cases of hyperlipidemy. Because of all these, we studied the effect of Beiqishen tea on altered lipid metabolisms, redox parameters and on liver metal contents. Although it was expected, there was not any liver protecting activity of the Beiqishen tea extract in the hyperlipidemic rat model, which was proved by biochemical and morphological studies. The reason for our expectation was the significant polyphenol content of Beiqishen tea. Although, the detoxifying activity of tea polyphenols could be observed in hyperlipidemy, at the same time toxic metal element content (As, Mo, Ni, Pb and Cr) of the tea infusion accumulated in the liver in both normo- and hyperlipidemic rats.

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