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Forty-eight hoards were found in Hungary, more exactly on the territory of the Carpathian Basin, from between 1000 and 1141, which certainly contained more that 15507 coins yet only 9 of them can be accepted as ones that have authentically completely been preserved even from a subjective aspect. Only 7 of the 48 hoards contained 47+ foreign coins (Byzantine, German and Bohemian), and other objects (pieces of jewellery) were found in 5 of them. Most of the hoards came from the time of (Saint) Ladislaus I, the one that contained the highest number of coins came from Géza I’s time, while most of the hoards that contained coins of only a single type and that contained the highest variety of coin types came from the times when (Saint) Ladislaus I and Stephen II ruled. Byzantine gold and bronze coins could be in circulation beside the Hungarian silver coins.

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On the coins in the cemetery of the Hungarian commoners at Magyarhomorog-Kónyadomb . The Magyarhomorog-Kónyadomb cemetery, in which 540 graves of the Hungarian commoners were unearthed from the 10 th –12 th centuries, was the richest one in the Carpathian Basin in regard of coins: a hundred and ninety-nine coins were uncovered in 145 graves, mostly of adults, from the period between (Saint) Stephen I (1000–1038) and Stephen II (1116–1131). The majority of the coins were intact; two of them were folded in half. Coins cut to pieces were placed in 48 graves: the fragments either belonged to the same item or they were independent segments. They appeared in three functions in the burial rite: in clusters as perforated coin ornaments (3 graves of children), as burial obols in the mouth or the hands 69 graves and as diverse coin grave-goods 98 graves. The distribution of the graves with coins shows a relative chronology in concentric stripes, where the oldest ones are in the centre. The village that used the cemetery has not yet been identified.

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Im Frühjahr des Jahres 1900 3 informierte der Obergespan des ehemaligen ungarischen Komitats Bereg, Dr. Viktor Hagara, den in Munkács (heute: Mukačevo, Zakarpatskaja obl., Ukraine) wohnhaften Tivadar Lehoczky 4 , dass Steinbrecher in Beregszász-Kishegy auf ein Grab der ungarischen Landnahmezeit gestoßen sind. Lehoczky traf am 22. April im damaligen Komitatssitz ein and suchte in Begleitung des Bürgermeisters, Dr. Kamill Buzáth, die in der südlichen Gemarkung der Stadt gelegene Fundstelle auf.

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Abstract  

We investigate various number system constructions. After summarizing earlier results we prove that for a given lattice Λ and expansive matrix M: Λ → Λ if ρ(M −1) < 1/2 then there always exists a suitable digit set D for which (Λ, M, D) is a number system. Here ρ means the spectral radius of M −1. We shall prove further that if the polynomial f(x) = c 0 + c 1 x + ··· + c k x kZ[x], c k = 1 satisfies the condition |c 0| > 2 Σ i=1 k |c i| then there is a suitable digit set D for which (Z k, M, D) is a number system, where M is the companion matrix of f(x).

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Periodica Mathematica Hungarica
Authors: D. Szász, L. Kovács, and J. Mayer
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Liver cells of the twenty-one day old rat embryo are isolated by a modified method and autophagy is studied in them by electron microscopic morphology and morphometry. Immediately after isolation or 2.5 h incubation in nutrient-free medium, embryonic hepatocytes contain high amount of glycogen and only very few autophagic vacuoles. In contrast, all glycogen is lost and 15% of the cytoplasmic volume is occupied by late autophagic vacuoles in hepatocytes after 18 h in the same medium. Presence of 3- methyladenine in the latter case inhibits both the loss of glycogen and the appearance of autophagic vac- uoles while enlarging the multivesicular body compartment. Our findings reveal major differences between isolated embryonic and adult hepatocytes concerning autophagy. Several types of autophagic vacuoles are described in the cell types of the erythropoietic cell lineage. This means that autophagy is an integral part of erythropoiesis not only in bone marrow, but also in embryonic liver that is investigat- ed here for the first time from this point of view. The presence of unclosed isolation membranes and the predominance of early autophagic vacuoles in reticulocytes indicates that the molecular machinery of segregation is still active in this functionally and structurally highly reduced cell type.

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The aim of dogrose breeding for fruit purposes is to select genotypes suitable for cultivation and to produce new genotypes by crossing. Physical and chemical analyses, prospective genotypes have been developed from R. inodora , R. corymbifera, R. rubiginosa and R. canina varieties.In the course of the investigations, the highest vitamin C content was found in the hips of R. inodora and R. rubiginosa . The glucose and fructose contents ranged from 9.57–13.36 g/100 g, averaged over several years. The amounts of these two carbohydrates were equal, or in some taxa (e.g. R. corymbifera, R. canina Sz3) the fructose content was higher.The glucose, fructose and vitamin C contents changed at different rates in each taxon during ripening. The results showed that the fructose content reached its peak a week earlier than the glucose content. The vitamin C content of morphological varieties of R. canina did not change substantially during ripening.

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Periodica Mathematica Hungarica
Authors: L. Pyber, A. Kroó, L. Lempert, and M. Kovács
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PVC was used as a model substance to study the dependence of thermal measurement data on the preparation and morphological characteristics of samples The PVC treated was a commercially available suspension polymer, Ongrovil S 155, produced by the Borsodi Vegyi Kombinát.

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