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Abstract  

This work reports the study of Bi4V2–xBaxO11–1.5x (0.02≤x≤0.50) series, which is a potential source of solid electrolytes to apply in oxygen sensors. X-ray powder diffraction was used to point out the formation of major ionic conductive phases and minor ones. The modifications of vanadate substructure were probed, at short range, by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. Differential scanning calorimetry evidenced the formation of tetragonal γ phase, which can be ionic conductive, for x=0.14.

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Abstract  

In this work, the influence of attapulgite concentration on the nucleating efficiency of isotactic polypropylene (iPP) and on the kinetics of non-isothermal crystallization were ascertained.The study was conducted by DSC. The nucleating efficiency was determined according to the procedure described by Fillon and the kinetics of non-isothermal crystallization was determined using Ozawa's method using cooling rates of 2, 5 and 10C min−1.Our results indicate that both the relative crystallinity and the crystallization temperature increase with filler content and that a maximum occurs at 2% mass/mass filler content. Both parameters decrease with increasing cooling rates. The Ozawa's exponent tended to increase with temperature and filler content.

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Community Ecology
Authors:
C. Calderón del Cid
,
R. S. Rezende
,
A. R. Calor
,
J. S. Dahora
,
L. N. de Aragão
,
M. L. Guedes
,
A. N. Caiafa
, and
A. O. Medeiros

Abstract

Leaf litter breakdown is an important process in riparian ecosystems, regulated by the concomitant fluctuations of allochthonous organic matter input (quality and quantity), the environmental conditions, and the decomposer community. Our objective was to assess the effects of temporal variability of litter quantity and quality over the stream's decomposer community. We hypothesized that the litter effects over the decomposer community would be overruled by Cerrado's harsh environmental conditions. Precipitation fluctuations, especially during dry and rain seasons, did modify the litterfall periodicity, but not the average organic matter entering the system or the litterfall triggers. Fifteen riparian species were identified contributing with organic matter into the stream, however, Richeria grandis contributed with 48% of litter biomass, helping explain the nutritional intra-annual balance given by the litter chemistry, that would be determinant for ecosystem stability. Higher aquatic hyphomycetes sporulation rates and invertebrate density during the dry season suggest that the decomposer community required a more stable environment (consistent low current) in order to colonize and exploit leaf litter. Our results point out that physical fragmentation was the predominant driver of litter breakdown for our system, due to high decomposition rates, litter remaining mass correlated negatively with precipitation, and low decomposer abundance and activity. Invertebrate collectors' abundance was negatively correlated with litter remaining mass and showed no temporal variation, suggesting that this functional group may have benefited from the particulate organic matter produced by physical fragmentation. Therefore, annual temporal variations on Brazilian savanna stream systems may drive the functioning of the ecosystem.

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