The social status of the dead buried in the Transdanubian Roman period tumulus cemeteries.
The study raises a number of methodological problems in search for an answer to the question how reliably the social standing of the persons buried in Roman period graves can be examined by the example of the Transdanubian tumulus burials. Where it is possible (e.g. in the case of Nemesvámos-Baláca), the epigraphic data are also used, similarly to the topographic data of the settlements and villa farms to which the examined Roman period tumulus graves belonged. Nevertheless, the study concentrates on the social historical analysis of the sizes of the tumuli and the finds recovered from the graves in the light of the traditional grave-good giving customs. The author shortly discusses the controversial chronological problem of the construction of the tumulus at Nemesvámos-Baláca.
Reliable small-plot experiments play an important role in determining the value of hybrids, but the results of large-plot experiments, which give a better reflection of conditions and technologies, are needed to obtain reliable information on which hybrids can be produced most economically under specific cultivation conditions. Within the framework of the National Research Development Programme, large-scale tests are underway on new Hungarian maize hybrids, to promote the selection, introduction and propagation of the most economical hybrids for specific regions, ecological conditions and technological standards. The tests included hybrids Sze SC 271 (FAO 290), Dáma (FAO 300) and Mv 277 (FAO 320) from the very early maturity group, Sze SC 352 (FAO 340), Hunor (FAO 370) and Norma (FAO 380) from the early maturity group and Maraton (FAO 450) and Sze SC 463 R (FAO 490) from the medium maturity group, grown at 20 different locations in Hungary. Each year the yield differences between the locations reflected the extreme distribution of precipitation during the growing season in different parts of the country. High amounts of precipitation were required in the growing season to reach the highest yields, but moderately high yields were achieved over a wide range of rainfall levels.
The yield of maize is primarily influenced by sunlight, temperature, available plant nutrients and water supply. Since plants take up water through their roots, the most decisive factor is not precipitation but the quantity of water available in the soil. In this study, a simple, easy-to-reproduce, capacitive model was elaborated to determine the available moisture content for maize. During the calculations, based on the balance method, the available moisture content in the top 110 cm soil layer was determined, taking daily weather data into account. The examinations were carried out on a medium heavy chernozem soil with lime deposits, in a multifactorial experiment at the Látókép Experimental Station of the Center of Agricultural Sciences, Debrecen University, between 1990 and 2004. Annual yield fluctuation is primarily determined by the soil moisture content in the month of July and the water supplies in May, according to regression analysis. The maize yields in the past 15 years could be calculated with an accuracy of 570 kg/ha, an error limit of below 10% and an r value of 0.805, using a regression line and the data of monthly moisture supplies. However, the yields of fertilized plots can only be estimated with an accuracy of 1 t/ha on average. Fertilizer utilization is influenced by the moisture content of the soil, so it makes sense to include this in the analysis instead of the other environmental factors. Water is required for nutrient utilization. In years with poor or medium water supplies, moderate fertilizer rates are more effective, compared to higher rates in years with better water supplies. Efficient fertilization in maize production can only be achieved by harmonizing soil moisture content and the applied fertilizer rate.
investigations were made on the relationship between plant density and plant height, and on the yield, thousand seed mass, and ratio of diseased and broken seeds of varieties with different seed sizes. Experiments were carried out to analyse the effects of potassium on the yield, bacterial diseases and nutritive quality of the seed of bean varieties. Three dry bean cultivars representing the small, medium and large seed size groups were investigated. Six plant density treatments were chosen based on theoretical seed norms, taking the germinative value of the seeds into consideration. The correlation between plant density and yield average showed that the volume of yield increased for varieties with large and medium-sized seeds up to a plant density of 285-400 thousand/ha, after which it declined. On the basis of the results, yield averages at plant densities of 285-334 thousand plants/ha were 0.17 t/ha higher than those achieved at low density (200 thousand plants/ha). At greater plant density the plant height increased in the case of large-seeded varieties and there was a considerable decrease in the thousand seed mass. With an adequate water supply a high level of potassium decreased the number of pods and seeds per plant compared with the basic level, which gave a yield of 2.5 t/ha. The use of high rates of potassium fertilizer decreased the number of infected seeds, but the differences were only significant for the small-seeded variety. A moderately high potassium level was advantageous for food quality, particularly during drought.
This paper reports on the results obtained with the pulsed nuclear magnetic resonance (P-NMR) technique applied for determining fat content in fresh meat. The interfering moisture content of meat was removed by microwave drying and the dried residue was quantitatively transferred into the P-NMR tubes. The total analysis time was about 50 min. Experiments were performed with rendered pure pork, beef and goose fats, sunflower oil and with lean pork - fat and lean beef - tallow mixtures (batters). The regression (prediction) equations (intensity of P-NMR signal vs. fat content determined with the Soxhlet reference method) of the sunflower oil and fat samples did not differ appreciably. Consequently, contrary to the results obtained with the CW-NMR technique, the variability of the fatty acid composition of the examined fats and oil had no substantial effect on the regression (prediction) equations in this case. On the other hand, there was a considerable difference between the regression lines of the lean pork-fat and lean beef-tallow mixtures. Therefore, due to the interfering effect of the non-fat dry matter and the type of meat on the intensity of P-NMR signal, this technique can only have a restricted practical application in the in-line process control of fat content of meats.
The use of genetic markers allows the study of polymorphism and genetic distances between maize lines in greater depth than can be achieved on the basis of phenotype and DUS traits. The analysis of polymorphism between 46 maize inbred lines with known genetic background and the classification of these lines in related groups was carried out by means of morphological description, isoenzyme analysis, RAPD analysis, and identification using gene-linked microsatellite (SSR) markers. The genetic distance or degree of relationship between the lines was determined using cluster analysis. Only a very limited extent of allele polymorphism could be detected in isoenzyme analyses; the 46 lines formed only 18 gel electrophoresis groups. Nevertheless, on the basis of RAPD and SSR markers, all the lines could be distinguished from each other. This was reflected by the PIC (polymorphism index content) values, which ranged from 0.04 to 0.55 (mean 0.27) for the various enzyme loci, while far higher values were obtained for RAPD and SSR markers (0.20–0.91, mean 0.61, and 0.54–0.90, mean 0.73, respectively). Due to the large number of lines, two lines, derived from each other or from common parents, were chosen from each related group as the basis for grouping the lines according to genetic background. It was found that, while the individual marker systems only partially reflected the actual relationships between the lines, a joint processing of the genetic markers, supplemented with morphological data, revealed a close correlation between the groups formed on the dendrogram and the genetic background.
The analysis of polymorphism between 46 maize inbred lines with known genetic background and the classification of these lines in related groups was carried out by means of morphological, isoenzyme and genetic markers. The degree of relationship between the lines was determined using cluster analysis. Only a very limited extent of allele polymorphism could be detected in isoenzyme analyses. Nevertheless, on the basis of RAPD and SSR markers, all the lines could be distinguished from each other. Grouping lines into related groups it was found that, while the individual marker systems only partially reflected the actual relationships, a joint analysis of genetic markers and morphological data revealed a close correlation between the groups formed on the dendrogram and genetic backgrounds.
Recently, comprehensive molecular
phylogenetic analyses of ribosomal DNA sequences have led to important advances
in understanding the evolution of powdery mildew fungi (Erysiphales). These
results have triggered major changes in the identification, taxonomy, and,
thus, nomenclature of this group of plant pathogens. This paper reviews the
recent nomenclatural changes of the Erysiphales and provides an up-to-date list
of all the powdery mildew fungi reported from Hungary using the new names of
the fungal taxa.
Bevezetés: A trimetazidin olyan metabolikus hatású anyag,
amelynek hatékonysága igazolást nyert a stabil koszorúér-szindróma kezelésében.
Az ajánlás szerint a trimetazidin második vonalbeli kezelésként megfontolandó az
angina gyakoriságának csökkentésére és a terhelési tolerancia javítására azokban
a betegekben, akiknek a tünetei nem kontrollálhatók megfelelően béta-blokkolók,
kalciumcsatorna-blokkolók és tartós nitrátok adása mellett.
Célkitűzés: Jelen vizsgálatunkban a különböző adagolású (3
× 20 mg, 2 × 35 mg, 1 × 80 mg) trimetazidinkészítmények hatékonyságát kívántuk
tisztázni stabil angina pectorisban. Az elsődleges klinikai célváltozók a
következők voltak: heti anginaszám, valamint a heti rövid hatástartamú
sublingualis nitrátfogyasztás. Módszer: Mindketten adatgyűjtést
végeztünk a PubMed, a Cochrane Library és a Cochrane Central Register of
Controlled Trials adatbázisokban az 1967-től 2019. szeptember 30-ig terjedő
időszakra vonatkozóan. A statisztikai elemzést standard
metaanalízis-módszerekkel hajtottuk végre. Eredmények: Összesen
31 randomizált, kontrollált, illetve obszervációs tanulmány került bevonásra.
9856 beteg (átlagéletkor: 59,6 év, férfi: 61,6%) kezelését értékeltük. A
trimetazidin a randomizált tanulmányokban a placebóval összehasonlítva
csökkentette a heti anginaszámot (átlagos különbség: –1,84, 95% CI: –2,39;
–1,30; p<0,0001) és a heti nitroglicerin-fogyasztást (–1,65, 95% CI: –2,17;
–1,14; p<0,0001). A trimetazidin a kiinduláshoz képest a kombinációs és az
obszervációs vizsgálatokban csökkentette a heti anginaszámot (átlagos különbség:
–3,73, 95% CI: –4,53; –2,92; p<0,0001) és a heti nitroglicerin-fogyasztást
(–3,23, 95% CI: –4,23; –2,24; p<0,0001). A három kezelési dózis között az
anginaszám csökkenésében és a nitroglicerin-fogyasztásban nem lehetett
különbséget kimutatni (p = 0,57, illetve p = 0,48). További eredményeink: a két
primer változó vizitről vizitre csökkent; nagyobb beválasztási anginaszám a
rövidebb időtartamú tanulmányokban és a kisebb adagú trimetazidint kapók között
fordult elő gyakrabban, és ezek a betegek a többieknél fiatalabbak voltak. A
rövidebb időtartamú tanulmányokban a kezdeti nitroglicerin-igény, illetve a
-csökkenés nagyobb volt a hosszabb időtartamúakhoz képest.
Következtetések: A trimetazidin kedvező klinikai hatású
stabil angina pectorisban, az alkalmazott adagtól függetlenül. Új
megállapításunk az, hogy a súlyosabb állapotú, fiatalabb betegek kezelésének
klinikai haszna a legnagyobb. Orv Hetil. 2020; 161(16): 611–622.