An experimental method was conducted to evaluate the minimum bubble nucleation energy of freon-12 for application in the superheated-liquid-droplet
(SLD) technique. The minimum energy needed for an incident particle to cause the bubble nucleation is based on the theoretical
calculation ofWmin/ηkrc value. The calculated value may mislead the result of measured intensity due to its under/overestimation ofWmin/ηkrc values at various temperatures. Nevertheless, the experimental evaluation ofWmin/ηkrc of freon-12 for causing the bubble nucleation is barely touched because the proper methodology has not developed fully. The
minimum energy needed to produce the bubble nucleation, can be evaluated by mixing the alpha-emitting nuclides with the SLD.
By direct hitting the SLD with alpha-particle, the energy deposited inside the SLD may cause the bubble nucleation if the
deposited energy is larger than theWmin/ηkrc of freon-12 droplet at that specific temperature. The experimental evaluated values in this study agree with the theoretical
estimation in 78% for SLD emulsion temperature within 22–34°C. Tests suggest that to apply the SLD in measuring the alpha-emitting
nuclides, the emulsion temperature should be maintained below 30°C to get a maximum efficiency and to avoid interference from
beta or gamma event.
Berberine, a primary pharmacological active constitute of Coptidis Rhizoma, could inhibit neuronal apoptosis in cerebral ischemia. Here, we aimed to investigate whether and how HIF-1 is implicated in the anti-apoptosis effect of berberine on neurons under hypoxia/ischemia. Viability of PC12 cells treated with berberine prior to or following CoCl2-induced hypoxia was evaluated. Annexin V-PI staining was employed to analyse cell apoptosis ratio. HIF-1α and apoptosis-associated molecules were detected via Western blotting. TUNEL and immunohistochemistry were used to demonstrate apoptosis, HIF-1α and p53 levels in cerebral tissue of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) rats. Berberine pretreatment promoted PC12 cells survival and inhibited apoptosis under hypoxia condition. At the same time, it decreased cell viability and enhancement of apoptosis were observed with berberine treatment under hypoxia. Decreased HIF-1α, caspase 9, caspase 3 and increased Bcl-2/Bax ratio were responsible for the anti-apoptosis of berberine pretreatment. However, pro-apoptosis by berberine under hypoxia was indicated with opposing regulation of those molecules. Significant reduction of apoptosis, HIF-1α and p53 were found in cerebral tissue of MCAO rats treated with berberine. The present study suggests that berberine regulates neuronal apoptosis in cerebral ischemia, which might be dependent on the degree of cell injury. HIF-1 and the followed apoptotic pathway are involved in those effects of berberine.
Thermogravimetric analysis (TG) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR)results of commercial montmorillonite were compared to
that exchanged with trimethyloctadecyl quaternary ammonium chloride (SCPX2048), both were treated up to500C. The time-of-flight
mass spectrometer (TOF/MS) results of SCPX2048 trapped under300 and 500C were compared with that of N,N,Ntrimethyl-1-dodecanammonium
chloride(A 18-50) trapped under 200 and 300C. The degradation mechanism of organic modified montmorillonite was proposed.
PMMA-clay nanocomposite was synthesized through intercalation method and its properties were examined by both TG and DSC techniques.
The thermal stability and glass transition temperature of montmorillonite filled PMMA increase comparing with that of the
Dithiocarbamates fungicides (DTCs) are worldwidely used fungicides. Residue analytical methods on DTCs are usually based on headspace gas chromatography, which are not much stable and precise. In this study, a specific, simple and reliable method for determining DTCs fungicides residues was optimized and validated. The DTCs in foods and soils were extracted with an alkaline solution of EDTA and l-cysteine, followed by pH adjusting and methyl derivatization in methyl iodine solution. The organic layer of the reactants was separated, concentrated under vacuum and reconstructed in acetonitrile. DTCs residues were eluted on a C18 column and detected by HPLC-DAD at 272 nm. The S-alkyl derivatives of thiram, mancozeb and propineb were separated at different retention times. At fortified levels of 0.05 mg/kg to 2 mg/kg (residue expressed as CS2, in mg/kg, the same below), it is found that recoveries for DTCs spiked in apple, cucumber, tomato, rice and soil samples ranged from 70.8% to 105.3%, with relative standard deviations (RSD) from 0.6% to 13.7%. Limits of detection (LODs) and quantification (LOQs) ranged from 0.003 to 0.026 mg/kg and from 0.011 to 0.105 mg/kg for various foods and soils. This method was also applied to real sample tests.
To control the quality of Euonymus fortunei (Turcz.) Hand.-Mazz., a simple and reliable method of high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with photodiode array detector (PAD) was developed for both fingerprint analysis and quantitative determination. Four representative flavonoids, namely, kaempferol-3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-7-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)-α-L-rhamnopyranoside (I), kaempferol-3,7-O-α-dirhamnopyranoside (II), apigenin-7-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (III), and kaempferol-3-(4″-O-acetyl)-O-α-L-rhamnopyranoside-7-O-α-L-r hamnopyranoside (IV) isolated from E. fortunei, were used as reference compounds and simultaneously determined by the validated HPLC method. The unique properties of the chromatographic fingerprint were validated by analyzing 11 batches of E. fortunei, E. japonicus, E. laxiflorus, E. myrianthus, and E. hamiltonianus samples. Our results revealed that the chromatographic fingerprint combined with similarity measurement could efficiently identify and distinguish E. fortunei from the other investigated Euonymus species.
High-performance liquid chromatography with a hydrophilic-interaction liquid chromatographic (HILIC) column has been successfully used to retain and separate the polar phosphonic herbicides glyphosate and glufosinate. Online electrospray tandem ion-trap mass spectrometric and DAD detection were used. The effects on the separation of mobile phase acetonitrile content, buffer concentration, and flow rate, and of column temperature, were investigated. With UV-visible detection at 195 nm, LOQ were <850 mg kg−1, showing the method is suitable for product quality control of these herbicides alone or in combination. Tandem mass spectrometric conditions were optimized for ion-trap detection. Quantification was by use of selected reaction monitoring transitions m/z 168 → 150 in negative-ion mode for glyphosate and m/z 182 → 136 in positive-ion mode for glufosinate. Limits of detection (LOD; S/N > 3) were 0.20 and 0.16 ng for glyphosate and glufosinate, respectively, and the respective limits of quantification (LOQ; S/N = 10) were 0.02 and 0.05 mg kg−1. Sample derivatization was not necessary to achieve low detection limits in residue analysis in this study. Recovery from watermelon, spinach, potato, tomato, radish-root, and water fortified with the herbicides ranged from 63.6 to 107.3% and relative standard deviations were <15.3%.
Plants with deficiency in Gibberellins (GAs) biosynthesis pathway are sensitive to exogenous GA3, while those with deficiency in GAs signaling pathway are insensitive to exogenous GA3. Thus, exogenous GA3 test is often used to verify whether the reduced height (Rht) gene is involved in GAs biosynthesis or signaling pathway. In the present study, we identified the genetic factors responsive to exogenous GA3 at the seedling stage of common wheat and analyzed the response of the plant height related quantitative trait loci (QTL) to GA3 to understand the GAs pathways the Rht participated in. Recombinant inbred lines derived from a cross between KN9204 and J411 with different response to exogenous GA3 were used to screen QTL for the sensitivity of coleoptile length (SCL) and the sensitivity of seedling plant height (SSPH) to exogenous GA3. Two additive QTL and two pairs of epistatic QTL for SCL were identified, meanwhile, two additive QTL and three pairs of epistatic QTL for SSPH were detected. For the adult plant height (PH) investigated in two environments, six additive QTL were identified. Three QTL qScl-4B, qSsph-4B and qPh-4B were mapped in one cluster near the functional marker Rht-B1b. When PH were conditional on SSPH, the absolute additive effect value of qPh-4B and qPh-6B were reduced, suggesting that the Rhts in both two QTL were insensitive to exogenous GA3, while the additive effect values of qPh-2B, qPh-3A, qPh-3D and qPh-5A were not significantly changed, indicating that the Rhts in these QTL were sensitive to exogenous GA3, or they were not expressed at the seedling stage.