Authors:Q. Xu, H. Fan, Z. Jiang, Z. Zhou, L. Yang, F. Mei and L. Qu
This research was aimed to study the cell wall degradation and the dynamic changes of Ca2+ and related enzymes in developing aerenchyma of wheat root under waterlogging. An examination of morphological development by light and electron microscope revealed that the structure of cell wall in middle cortical cells remained intact after 12 h of waterlogging and turned thinner after waterlogging for 24 h. At 48 h, the aerenchyma has been formed. The cellulase activity gradually increased in middle cortical cells within 24 h of waterlogging, and decreased with the formation of aerenchyma. Fluorescence detection and subcellular localization of Ca2+ showed the dynamic changing of Ca2+ at the cellular and subcellular levels during the development of aerenchyma. The activity of Ca2+-ATPase enhanced markedly in intercellular space, plasma membrane and tonoplast of some middle cortical cells after 8 h of waterlogging and remained high after 24 h, but it decreased after 48 h of waterlogging. All these suggests that cellulase, Ca2+ and Ca2+-ATPase show a dynamic distribution during the aerenchyma development which associated with the cell wall degradation of middle cortical cells. Moreover, there is a feedback regulation between Ca2+ and Ca2+-ATPase.
Authors:G. Liu, L. Zhang, X. Qu, Y. Li, J. Gao and L. Yang
A new model has been deduced by assumed autocatalytic reactions. It includes two rate constants, k1 and k2, two reaction orders, m and n, and the initial concentration of [OH]. The model proposed has been applied to the curing reaction of a system of bisphenol-S
epoxy resin (BPSER), with4,4'-diaminodiphenylmethane (DDM) as a curing agent. The curing reactions were studied by means of
differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Analysis of DSC data indicated that an autocatalytic behavior showed in the curing
reaction. The new model was found to fit to the experimental data exactly. Rate constants, k1 and k2 were observed to be greater when curing temperature increased. The activation energies for k1 and k2 were 95.28 and 39.69 kJ mol–1, respectively. Diffusion control was incorporated to describe the cure in the latter stages.