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The aim of the study was to investigate changes of photosynthetic efficiency, amount of photosynthetic pigments, superoxide dismutase (SOD) enzyme activity, and rate of lipid peroxidation in bean-rust interaction. The clarification of the role of the above changes involved in the defence mechanism can significantly contribute to the breeding of plant varieties with natural resistance. Consequently, the amount of chemicals used in food production can be significantly reduced. In the present study some principal physiological parameters, such as the relative chlorophyll content of the host plant, the amount of photosynthetic pigments, changes in photosynthetic efficiency, and the activity of superoxide-dismutase (SOD) in addition to rate of lipid peroxidation (LP) were measured. The experiment was conducted in a humidity tent. Significant decrease in the relative chlorophyll content and in the amount of photosynthetic pigments was measured. At both sampling times, an increase was found in superoxide-dismutase enzyme activity and in rate of lipid peroxidation due to the bean rust infection. Notably, in several cases the differences were significant. The results indicate that the above parameters have important role in the bean-rust interaction, which should be taken into consideration in resistance breeding.

Open access

There are extensive data on effects of antifungal agents on the plant pathogens, especially on Fusariums spp. species. However, investigations on the interaction of chemicals and the treated cultivars are rare. The aim of the study was to test two types of fungicide mixtures, azoxystrobin-propiconazole, and prothioconazole-tebuconazole, which are applied in wheat cultivars intensively, on six fodder maize hybrids that were infected with Fusarium proliferatum in the R1 growth stage in a field trial. The effect of the fungicide treatment was tested on the starch content and antifungal, antioxidant polyphenols of the kernels in the R3–R4 and R6 stage of the cultivars. The level of the fungal presence and the fumonisin concentration of the kernels were increased significantly under the artificial infection. The fumonisin concentration was variable at the R6 stage of the hybrid maize kernels. The treatment with prothioconazole and tebuconazole was found to be suitable when it was done before flowering, while the azoxystrobin-propiconazole treatments were equally successful before and after maize flowering considering the decreasing fumonisin concentration of the kernels. Both fungicide mixtures, when they were applied after maize flowering, affected the starch biosynthesis to the R3–R4 stage significantly. Meanwhile, azoxystrobin-propiconazole also significantly affected the antioxidant flavone/flavanol contents from the R3–R4 stage to the R6 stage.

Restricted access
Acta Botanica Hungarica
Authors:
P. Török
,
E. Tóth
,
K. Tóth
,
O. Valkó
,
B. Deák
,
B. Kelbert
,
P. Bálint
,
Sz. Radócz
,
A. Kelemen
,
J. Sonkoly
,
T. Miglécz
,
G. Matus
,
A. Takács
,
V. A. Molnár
,
K. Süveges
,
L. Papp
,
L. Papp Jr.
,
Z. Tóth
,
B. Baktay
,
G. Málnási Csizmadia
,
I. Oláh
,
E. Peti
,
J. Schellenberger
,
O. Szalkovszki
,
R. Kiss
, and
B. TÓthmérész

For understanding local and regional seed dispersal and plant establishment processes and for considering the ecotypes and other forms of specific variability, hard data of locally or regionally measured traits are necessary. We provided newly measured seed weight data of 193 taxa, out of which 24 taxa had not been represented in the SID, LEDA or BiolFlor databases. Our new measurements and formerly published data of locally collected seed weight records together covers over 70% of the Pannonian flora. However, there is still a considerable lack in seed weight data of taxonomically problematic genera, even though they are represented in the Pannonian flora with a relatively high number of species and/or subspecies (e.g. Sorbus, Rosa, Rubus, Crataegus and Hieracium). Our regional database contains very sporadic data on aquatic plants (including also numerous invasive species reported from Hungary and neighbouring countries) and some rare weeds distributed in the southwestern part of the country. These facts indicate the necessity of further seed collection and measurements.

Restricted access
Acta Botanica Hungarica
Authors:
R. Kiss
,
J. Sonkoly
,
P. Török
,
B. Tóthmérész
,
B. Deák
,
K. Tóth
,
K. Lukács
,
L. Godó
,
A. Kelemen
,
T. Miglécz
,
Sz. Radócz
,
E. Tóth
,
N. Balogh
, and
O. Valkó

Seeds ensure the survival and dispersal of the majority of vascular plant species. Seeds require species-specific germination conditions and display very different germination capacities using different germination methods. Despite the importance of plant generative reproduction, little is known about the germination capacity of the seeds of the Pannonian flora, particularly under field conditions. Our aim was to reduce this knowledge gap by providing original data on the germination capacity of 75 herbaceous species. We reported the germination capacity of 8 species for the first time. We also highlighted the year-to-year differences in the germination capacity of 11 species which could be highly variable between years. The data regarding the germination capacity of target species, as well as weeds and invasive species, can be informative for nature conservation and restoration projects. Our findings support the composition of proper seed mixtures for ecological restoration and also highlight the importance of testing seed germination capacity before sowing.

Restricted access