A novel screening immunoassay for histamine was used for detection of histamine in different foodstuffs. The detection limit of this assay was 20 µg kg-1. The concentration of histamine varied between 182-982 µg kg-1 in sauerkraut, cheese and fish samples and 26-18433 µg l-1 in milk, sparkling wine and wines. The applied competitive enzyme immunoassay (ELISA) seemed a reliable technique for simple and rapid determination of histamine in food.
The aim of this study was to assess the nutritional quality of homemade beef sausages by examining the amino acid, biogenic amine, and fatty acid composition. The most abundant amino acids were Ala (15.56%), Leu (13.28%), Gly (8.64%), Pro (8.41%), Ser (8.26%), and Val (7.65%). The essential amino acids accounted for 44.30% of total amino acids. Apart from the protein building amino acids, the free amino acid content was relatively high, accounting for 10% of total amino acid content. The average biogenic amine concentration in the sausage samples was low (1.69 mg kg−1). Saturated fatty acids accounted for 59.10% of total fatty acids, followed by monounsaturated (38.63%) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (2.27%). The fatty acid profile was dominated by oleic (C18:1, 34.37%) and palmitic (C16:0, 30.24%) acids, and short-chain fatty acids were also present, which may have a positive impact on gut health. The results show that beef sausages have a high nutritional value and are a good source of essential amino acids, free amino acids, and fatty acids that are important for human health.
To our knowledge, there is a lack of information on the nutrient composition of Busha cattle milk with special regard to its amino acid and biogenic amine contents. The Busha cattle breed is known to be highly resistant to various diseases and well-adapted to the extensive breeding conditions of the Balkan Peninsula. Busha cow milk contains an average of 13.47% dry matter, 4.34% fat, 3.72 % protein, and 4.32% lactose. Significant differences were detected (P < 0.05) in the amino acid compositions of the milk of different Busha cattle strains of Kosovo. Glutamic acid, proline, leucine, aspartic acid, lysine, and valine represented 68% of the total amino acid content. Essential amino acids, branched-chain and sulphur-containing amino acids were found in substantial amounts in the milk samples. Among the biogenic amines, however, spermine (0.16 mg kg−1) and cadaverine (0.09 mg kg−1) were present in low concentrations. Due to these excellent qualities of the Busha cow milk, preservation of this cattle breed is of great importance. Developing sustainable and secured breeding and feeding programs for this endangered cattle breed of the Balkan Peninsula should also be a high priority.
The purpose of this study was to compare the energy content and macronutrients of forty main popular traditional and modern meals in both Jordan and Hungary with the national and international recommendations. The calculation of energy content and macronutrients were done on traditional and modern recipes by two diﬀerent softwares (ESHA and NutriComp). Neither Jordanian nor Hungarian foods met the recommended energy content (35% of daily energy intake, 8400 kJ for energy intake). The recipes of both nations are characterised by higher protein, fat, and salt contents than WHO recommendation, a lower ﬁbre content, and sugar content within the recommended limits. The fat energy ratio and saturated fatty acid content of Hungarian recipes are signiﬁcantly higher than WHO recommendation. In general, Jordanian meals were more likely to meet the inclusion criteria. In conclusion, neither Jordanian nor Hungarian traditional and popular meals meet the international nutritional recommendations for a healthy diet, however, the composition of the real dishes may diﬀer signiﬁcantly from the recipes depending on the available ingredients and chosen kitchen technology.
Human milk (HM) of healthy, well-nourished, lactating mothers is a unique and ideal source of nutritive factors, like hormones, cytokines, chemokines, growth factors that ensures the proper growth and development of infants. Among the main components of HM, fat is an important energy source and a regulatory factor. The quality of milk fat depends on its fatty acid (FA) composition. Gas chromatography coupled with flame ionisation detection is one of the most common methods for analysis of the FA profile of HM. The aim of this study was to evaluate the FA composition of HM, collected from mothers with different health conditions (normal Body Mass Index (nBMI); overweight and obese) using GC-FID method. The results showed that saturated FAs were present in the highest amount in the HM samples, of which palmitic acid was the main representative. The major monounsaturated FA was oleic acid, while linoleic acid was the most abundant of the polyunsaturated FAs (PUFA). Overweight and obese women have lower levels of PUFA in their breast milk. The data were subjected to principal component and quadratic discriminant analysis (QDA). QDA classified nBMI and overweight and obese mother milk samples with 88.24% accuracy. Significant differences were found between normal and overweight and obese HM samples in case of C10:0 and C18:3 FAs. Higher maternal BMI was associated with a higher n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio.