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Abstract  

A method was developed for the determination of element concentrations in structured water samples (water with high oligoelements content). Sixteen elements (As, Br, Ca, Ce, Co, Cr, Eu, Fe, K, La, Lu, Na, Sb, Sc, Sm, Zn) were determined in 4 structured water samples and one taken from the water tap. The samples were preconcentrated evaporating 1 1 at atmospheric pressure and obtaining 100–500 mg of dry residue. Measurement accuracy by -spectroscopy was 3–30% and it can be improved by increasing the measurement time. The method allows simultaneous multielement analysis of various water sources and may successfully be used in environmental pollution control.

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Abstract  

This is the first systematic study of air pollution from heavy metals and other trace elements throughout several industrialized areas and national parks of Eastern Romanian Carpathians using the moss biomonitoring technique. Samples ofHylocomium splendens collected at 120 sites were analyzed by epithermal neutron activation analysis at the pulsed fast reactor IBR-2 at JINR, Dubna, for a wide range of elements including heavy metals and rare earths (Na, Mg, Al, Cl,K, Ca, Sc, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni (by (n,p) reaction), Cu, Zn, As, Se, Br, Rb, Sr, Zr, Mo, Ag, Sn, Sb, I, Cs, Ba, La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Yb, Hf, Ta, W, Au, Th, and U). Copper, lead and cadmium were determined by AAS. Certified Reference Standards of mosses produced for interlaboratory comparisons in the European moss-survey 1995 were used to ensure the quality of the measurements. To present results in the form of coloured contour maps the geographical information system GIS-INTEGRO was used. The regional extent of pollution with specific metals was determined. Results reported are well consistent with those obtained in numerous recent projects carried out in Germany, the Netherlands, Poland, Bulgaria and other countries.

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Acta Biologica Hungarica
Authors: Irma Tari, D. Camen, Giancarla Coradini, Jolán Csiszár, Erika Fediuc, Katalin Gémes, A. Lazar, E. Madosa, Sorina Mihacea, P. Poor, Simona Postelnicu, Mihaela Staicu, Ágnes Szepesi, G. Nedelea, and L. Erdei

Drought resistance of bean landraces was compared in order to select genotypes with either high morphological or high biochemical-physiological plasticity. The lines in the former group exhibited fast reduction in fresh and dry mass, decreased the water potential in primary leaves after irrigation withdrawal and the biomass mobilized from the senescent primary leaves was allocated into the roots. These genotypes had high frequency of primary leaf abscission under water stress. The genotypes with plasticity at the biochemical level maintained high water potential and photochemical efficiency, i.e. effective quantum yield, high photochemical (qP) and low non-hotochemical (NPQ) quenching in primary leaves under drought stress. While superoxide dismutase activity was not influenced by the drought and the genotype, catalase activity increased significantly in the primary leaves of the genotypes with efficient biochemical adaptation. Lines with high morphological plasticity exhibited higher quaiacol peroxidase activity under drought. Proline may accumulate in both cases, thus it may be a symptom of protein degradation or a successful osmotic adaptation. On the basis of contrasting responses, the genetic material cannot be screened for a large-scale breeding program by a single physiological parameter but by a set of the methods presented in this work.

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