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  • Author or Editor: L. Tvarůžek x
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The deoxynivalenol content, presence of kernels infected by Fusarium spp. pathogens and the frequency of visually scabby kernels in wheat intended for human consumption were monitored in 2003–2005. About 1000 samples provided by growers from various regions of the Czech Republic were analysed each year. Immunochemical assay ELISA-based kits for the analysis of deoxynivalenol content were employed. In 2003, 2004 and 2005, deoxynivalenol was detected at the maximum levels of 5090 μ −1 , 18300 μ −1 and 4437 μ −1 , respectively. Significant correlations were found between the deoxynivalenol content and percentage of kernels infected by Fusarium spp. pathogens, and percentage of visually scabby kernels. In all years under study, the relationship between the deoxynivalenol content and percentage of visually scabby kernels was closer than that between the deoxynivalenol content and percentage of kernels infected by Fusarium spp.

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Authors: P. Matušinsky, M. Hanusová, L. Stemberková, P. Mařík, V. Minaříková, L. Tvarůžek, I. Langer and T. Spitzer

The fungus Ramularia collo-cygni is increasingly important as the causal agent of Ramularia leaf spot (RLS). The work aimed to identify gene resources suitable for developing new breeding lines of spring barley with improved resistance. We tested 144 spring barley cultivars at 3 locations in the Czech Republic over 3 years (2009–2011). Only minor and statistically insignificant differences were observed between the individual cultivars in reaction to RLS. No cultivars were observed to have resistance to Ramularia collo-cygni, but significant influence of location and year on the intensity of RLS infection in barley was observed.

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The objectives of the study were to test diversity among winter barley breeding lines exhibiting various sensitivity to FHB and to find RAPD markers and AFLP markers that will distinguish between susceptible and moderately resistant genotypes. A test of a set of winter barley genotypes artificially infected in field trials by fusaria was carried out. Based on the results from field and laboratory evaluation and deoxynivalenol (DON) content assessment, barley genotypes with different responses to FHB were selected. The genotypes were hybridized and doubled haploid (DH) lines were derived in F1 generation using the in vitro androgenesis method. Initial parental components and derived DH lines were tested for FHB infection and DON content. A set of parental genotypes of winter barley was tested with 80 RAPD markers. Based on analyses of 80 RAPD primers in a set of parental genotypes of winter barley, the primer H15 was selected that provides specific product of 650-bp size for moderately resistant winter barley genotypes. In consecutive detection, this specific product was found in 4 DH lines. During the study, some DH lines were selected that exhibited improved resistance to Fusarium infection. A low infection level and low DON content were found in the winter barley line DH 610 from the combination of Br2611m × Duet. The AFLP technique was used to analyze parental genotypes of winter barley as well as 7 selected DH lines of winter barley. The detected markers can be further evaluated and employed to select breeding materials.

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Authors: P. Matušinsky, M. Váňová, L. Tvarůžek, I. Polišenská, M. Janeček and V. Smutný

Fusarium head blight caused by a complex of Fusarium species is widespread across the world and ranks among the most serious diseases in cereals. Long-term field experiments were set up to evaluate the effects of preceding crop and soil management methods on Fusarium mycotoxin (DON, deoxynivalenol) contamination of winter wheat and spring barley grain. Winter wheat and spring barley were cultivated at two locations in the Czech Republic (A: Ivanovice na Hané during 2002–2014, and B: Žabčice during 2007–2014) with preceding crops (A) alfalfa, maize, and pea; and (B) alfalfa (only for wheat), sugar beet (only for barley), and maize. Different soil management methods also were used: (A) 22 cm tillage, 15 cm tillage, 10 cm chisel, and direct drilling; and (B) 22 cm tillage, 10 cm chisel, and direct drilling. Mycotoxin content in harvested grain was analysed using ELISA. At both locations in the experiments with both wheat and barley, year had a significant effect on mycotoxin content in grain. Preceding crop was another significant factor in wheat experiments at both locations, with DON content in grain higher with maize as the preceding crop than in the cases of other preceding crops. Soil management method had a significant effect only on mycotoxin content in wheat grain grown at Žabčice, and the highest DON content was determined in the chisel variant, in which case a large amount of harvest residue remained on the soil surface or was only partially incorporated.

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