The present paper first establishes a decomposition result for f(x)∈ CrCr+1. By using this decomposition we thus can obtain an estimate of ∣f(x) - Ln(f,x)∣ which reflects the influence of the position of the x's and ω(f(r+1),δ)j, j = 0,1,...,s, on the error of approximation.
A novel method that spent nuclear fuel is converted into nitrates with N2O4, and then nitrates are extracted with TBP in supercritical CO2 (SC-CO2), has been developed for reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel, which has a potential prospect because of its potential to decrease
generation of the secondary liquid waste. In this paper, conversion of Nd2O3 with N2O4 into its nitrate under various conditions and extraction of the conversion product with TBP in SC-CO2 were investigated. When temperature was 60–120 °C, the molar ratio of H2O to Nd2O3 was from 1 to 6, and molar ratio of N2O4 to Nd2O3 was above 8, complete conversion of Nd2O3 into its nitrate was achieved. The conversion product was characterized by thermal analysis (TG-DTA), X-ray diffraction (XRD),
Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and Raman spectroscopy. Quantitative extraction of the conversion product
with TBP in supercritical CO2 was also achieved under experimental conditions.
The dilution enthalpies of D-mannitol and D-sorbitol in aqueous sodium chloride solution at various concentrations have been determined by isothermal microcalorimetry
at 298.15 K. The homogeneous enthalpic interaction coefficients over a quite large range of concentration of aqueous sodium
chloride solutions have been calculated according to the excess enthalpy concept. The results show that enthalpic pairwise
interaction coefficients (h2) of D-mannitol and D-sorbitol are positive in aqueous sodium chloride solution and become more positive with increase of the concentration of
sodium chloride. The results are interpreted in terms of the different conformations of the two polyols, solute-solute and
solute-solvent interactions involved by solvent effects.
To develop potential new Tc radiopharmaceuticals, a novel compound [99mTc(CO)2(NO)(EHIDA)]0 (EHIDA: 2,6-diethylphenylcarbamoylmethyliminodiacetic acid) has been prepared by reacting [99mTc(CO)3)(EHIDA)]− with NOBF4 both in water and acetonitrile. The conversion of [99mTc(CO)3)(EHIDA)]− to [99mTc(CO)2(NO)(EHIDA)]0 was supported by TLC, HPLC and eletrophoresis. The radiochemical purity (more than 99%) was proved by TLC and HPLC. The biodistribution
in mice demonstrated that [Tc(CO)2(NO)(EHIDA)]0 showed higher uptake in blood, kidney and lung (15 min, blood: 19.24±2.95; kidney: 13.61±3.49; lung: 10.81±1.09.) but a lower
uptake in liver (15 min, 5.73±0.74). The slower clearances (120 min, blood: 12.75±1.34; kidney: 13.61±3.49) from blood and
kidney were also found. This research describes two methods for the conversion of [99mTc(CO)3]+ into [99mTc(CO)2)(NO)]2+ by using NOBF4 as the source of NO+ both in organic solvent and water. The latter method offers the possibility to introduce the NO-group in high yield in water.
Thermal, chemical and rheological properties of ultraviolet aged asphalt binder were characterized by differential scanning
calorimetry (DSC), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and dynamic shear rheometer (DSR), respectively. Asphalt binder samples
were made with different film thickness (50, 100, 200 and 500 μm) and suffered different ageing time (0, 48, 96 and 144 h),
at a certain UV radiant intensity of 20 w m–2 in a self-made accelerated ageing oven. The results indicate that the UV light ageing would lead to the improvement of thermal
behavior and the growth of the glass transition temperature of asphalt binder. This type of ageing can be also reflected from
the FTIR spectra in terms of the characteristic peaks of the carbonyl groups and sulphoxides. The UV light ageing can change
some rheological parameters of asphalt binder, such as complex modulus and phase angle. The ageing degrees of asphalt binder
by this type of ageing test are mainly related to the ageing time and film thickness of the sample.
Authors:M. Błachnio, P. Staszczuk, G. Grodzicka, L. Lin, and Y. Zhu
Uniformly carbon-covered alumina (CCA) was
prepared via the carbonisation of sucrose highly dispersed on the alumina
surface. Using special thermogravimetry and sorptometry methods physicochemical
properties of carbon-covered alumina surfaces were investigated. A numerical
and analytical procedure for the evaluation of total heterogeneous properties
(desorption energy distribution and pore-size distribution functions) on the
basis of liquid thermodesorption from the sample surfaces under the quasi-equilibrium
conditions are presented. The desorption energy distribution was derived from
the mass loss Q-TG and the differential mass loss Q-DTG curves of thermodesorption
of pre-adsorbed polar and apolar liquid films. For the first time, the evaluation
of the fractal dimensions of carbon-covered alumina using the sorptometry,
thermogravimetry and AFM data is presented.
Authors:Q. Zhang, Z. Qian, L. Pan, H. Li, and H. Zhu
Berberine, a primary pharmacological active constitute of Coptidis Rhizoma, could inhibit neuronal apoptosis in cerebral ischemia. Here, we aimed to investigate whether and how HIF-1 is implicated in the anti-apoptosis effect of berberine on neurons under hypoxia/ischemia. Viability of PC12 cells treated with berberine prior to or following CoCl2-induced hypoxia was evaluated. Annexin V-PI staining was employed to analyse cell apoptosis ratio. HIF-1α and apoptosis-associated molecules were detected via Western blotting. TUNEL and immunohistochemistry were used to demonstrate apoptosis, HIF-1α and p53 levels in cerebral tissue of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) rats. Berberine pretreatment promoted PC12 cells survival and inhibited apoptosis under hypoxia condition. At the same time, it decreased cell viability and enhancement of apoptosis were observed with berberine treatment under hypoxia. Decreased HIF-1α, caspase 9, caspase 3 and increased Bcl-2/Bax ratio were responsible for the anti-apoptosis of berberine pretreatment. However, pro-apoptosis by berberine under hypoxia was indicated with opposing regulation of those molecules. Significant reduction of apoptosis, HIF-1α and p53 were found in cerebral tissue of MCAO rats treated with berberine. The present study suggests that berberine regulates neuronal apoptosis in cerebral ischemia, which might be dependent on the degree of cell injury. HIF-1 and the followed apoptotic pathway are involved in those effects of berberine.
Novel magnetic solid-phase extraction using carboxylated multiwalled carbon nanotubes was proposed with ultra high-performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry for the determination of silodosin in biological samples. The effects of various experimental parameters including adsorbent amount, pH, adsorption time, desorption conditions, and adsorbent reusability were systematically validated. Under the optimized conditions, the calibration curve was linear within the concentration range of 1.0–800 ng mL−1 with the correlation coefficient of 0.9997 and the lower limit of detection was 0.3 ng mL−1. The extraction recoveries were over 90.0% with relative standard deviation (RSD) of less than 5.0%. All these results suggested that magnetic extraction method can be used for enrichment and quantification of silodosin in biological samples.
Authors:L. Lv, L. Zhao, X. Wang, H. Zhang, Z. Zhu, Y. Chai, and G. Zhang
Epimedium pubescens Maxim. and Epimedium koreanum Nakai. are two common and confused species of Herba Epimedii in Chinese Pharmacopoeia 2010 edition. Different species and growing conditions lead to chemical differences between the two species which may result in the improper clinical usage. In this work, a new method based on rapid-resolution liquid chromatography combined with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (RRLC/TOFMS) has been developed for identification and differentiation of major flavonoids in two kinds of Epimedium extract and rat plasma. The compounds were identified effectively based on the accurate extract masses and formulae acquired by RRLC/TOFMS. The fragmentation rules deduced by collision-induced dissociation (CID) were successfully implemented in distinguishing some of the isomers, further validating the results. By using the combined analytical techniques, a total of 40 major flavonoids in extracts of two kinds of Epimedium were identified within 30 min, including 31 common components and 9 characteristic components. After oral administration, three prototype compounds in rat plasma were detected by comparing the constituents measured in vitro with those in vivo, and five metabolites were identified by contrasting the fragmentation rules. The identification and structural elucidation of the chemical constituents provided essential data for further pharmacological and clinical studies on different species of Epimedium.