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  • Author or Editor: L.P. Wang x
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Thioacetamide (TAA) is a potent hepatotoxicant in acute and chronic hepatic injury. The study examined the protective effect of sesame oil against TAA-induced hepatic injury in rats. Hepatic injury was induced by intraperitoneal injection of 100 mg/kg of TAA for 24 h. Triple doses of sesame oil (1, 2, or 4 mL/kg) was given orally 0, 6, and 12 h after TAA treatment. TAA significantly increased serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels. Sesame oil decreased serum AST and ALT levels and significantly inhibited hepatic lipid peroxidation and nitric oxide levels compared with TAA-alone group. Further, sesame oil significantly inhibited TAA-induced hepatic neutrophil activation marker myeloperoxidase activity. However, sesame oil did not affect hepatic tumor necrosis factor, IL-1β and IL-10 generation in TAA-treated group. In conclusion, sesame oil protects against TAA-induced hepatic injury and oxidative stress via the inhibition of neutrophil activation. However, inflammatory cytokines may not be involved in sesame-oil-associated hepatic protection against TAA in rats.

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In order to assess the contribution of adenosine triphosphate and its metabolites to the cellular metabolism process in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, it is very important to simultaneously determine the relative concentrations of ATP and its metabolites. In this study, a fast, simple reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography with high selectivity was developed to simultaneously measure adenosine triphosphate and its metabolites (adenosine diphosphate, adenosine monophosphate, and cyclic adenosine monophosphate) in yeast. The method was performed under the gradient grogram, and the detection was monitored at 254 nm. Analysis was achieved within 25 min. The four components can be detected with linear response over the concentration range from 1 to 100 mg L−1 with excellent correlation coefficients (r 2) > 0.999. The recovery of the four analytes was 92.9%, 90.4%, 99.1%, and 105.1%, respectively. To demonstrate the good analysis of yeast samples, changes in the four adenine nucleotides levels caused by caloric restriction in yeast were determined. It is expected that the current method may contribute to further metabolomics and system biology investigations of yeast.

Open access

High ozone (O3) can cause great damage to plants. However, the effect of high O3 on nitrogen (N) absorption, distribution, and utilization in rice at different growth stages under different planting densities is poorly understood. In the present study, a conventional cultivar (Yangdao 6) and a hybrid cultivar (II You 084) with different planting densities were exposed to an elevated amount of O3 (E-O3; 50% higher than that of the control, C-O3) under a freeair gas concentration enrichment (FACE) system. N absorption, distribution, and utilization of the green leaves, stems, and shoots at tillering, jointing heading, and maturity were investigated. Results showed that E-O3 significantly increased the N content in the shoots of Yangdao 6 by 7.5%, 12.7%, and 19.6%, respectively, at jointing, heading, and maturity. Also, the N content in the shoots of II You 084 increased by 5.4%, 6.5%, and 8.4% at the corresponding growth stage upon E-O3 application. E-O3 significantly decreased N accumulation of II You 084 by 8.3%, 4.9%, 4.7%, and 19.2%, respectively, at tillering, jointing, heading, and maturity. Further, E-O3 had a decreasing effect on the N distribution in green leaves (p ≤ 0.05) of both cultivars, but exerted an increasing effect on that in the stems of both cultivars (p ≤ 0.05). In addition, E-O3 significantly decreased the N use efficiency (NUE) for biomass of the two cultivars in all growth stages. These results revealed that E-O3 could increase the N content in rice plants but decrease the N accumulation and utilization in both cultivars. The effects of E-O3 on N absorption, distribution, and utilization were not affected by planting density.

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Summary

A simple and rapid method, using online ultraperformance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detection and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (UPLC-PDA-eλ-ESI-MS/MS), was developed for the in-depth analysis of 50 batches Radix et Rhizoma Rhei. The analysis was performed on a UPLC BEH C18 column using a gradient elution system. Baseline separation could be achieved in less than 7.5 min. At the same time, on the basis of the 50 batches of samples collected from representative cultivated regions, a novel chromatographic fingerprint was devised by UPLC-PDA, in which 27 common peaks were detected and identified by the developed UPLC-MS/MS method step by step according to fragmentation mechanisms, MS/MS data, standards, and relevant literature. Many active components gave prominent [M - H] ions in the ESI mass spectra. These components include anthraquinones, sennosides, stilbenes, glucose gallates, naphthalenes, and catechins. Furthermore, based on the information of these Radix et Rhizoma Rhei components, and further combined with discriminant analysis, a novel discriminant analysis equation (DAE) was established for the quality control of Radix et Rhizoma Rhei for the first time.

Open access

Abstract

This study optimised the hydrolysis process of chicken plasma protein and explored the in vivo antioxidant activity of its hydrolysates. The results showed that alkaline protease provided the highest degree of hydrolysis (19.30%), the best antioxidant effect in vitro. The optimal hydrolysis process of alkaline protease was: temperature 50 °C, time 8 h, [E]/[S] 7000 U g−1, pH 7.5. Antioxidant studies in vivo showed that the low, medium, and high dose groups significantly reduced the serum MDA and protein carbonyl content (P < 0.05) and significantly increased the serum SOD and GSH contents (P < 0.05). The results of HE staining of the liver showed that the liver cells in the model group were severely damaged, but the chicken plasma protein hydrolysates could alleviate this pathological damage. Chicken plasma protein hydrolysis products had certain antioxidant activity.

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Abstract

Thermal decomposition kinetics of magnesite were investigated using non-isothermal TG-DSC technique at heating rate (β) of 15, 20, 25, 35, and 40 K min−1. The method combined Friedman equation and Kissinger equation was applied to calculate the E and lgA values. A new multiple rate iso-temperature method was used to determine the magnesite thermal decomposition mechanism function, based on the assumption of a series of mechanism functions. The mechanism corresponding to this value of F(a), which with high correlation coefficient (r-squared value) of linear regression analysis and the slope was equal to −1.000, was selected. And the Malek method was also used to further study the magnesite decomposition kinetics. The research results showed that the decomposition of magnesite was controlled by three-dimension diffusion; mechanism function was the anti-Jander equation, the apparent activation energy (E), and the pre-exponential term (A) were 156.12 kJ mol−1 and 105.61 s−1, respectively. The kinetic equation was
ea
and the calculated results were in accordance with the experiment.
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Abstract

Intermittent fasting (IF) is a dietary strategy that involves alternating periods of abstention from calorie consumption with periods of ad libitum food intake and has been shown to have beneficial effects in many ways. Recent studies have shown that IF attenuates neurodegeneration and improves cognitive decline, enhances functional recovery after stroke as well as attenuates the pathological and clinical features of epilepsy in animal models. Furthermore, IF induced several molecular and cellular adaptations in neurons that overall enhanced cellular stress resistance, synaptic plasticity, and neurogenesis. In this review, the beneficial effects of IF on central neurological disorders are discussed. The information summarised in this review can be used to help contextualise existing research and better guide the development of future IF interventions.

Open access

The present study was to evaluate the survival rate of free and encapsulated Bifidobacterium bifidum BB28 under simulated gastrointestinal conditions and its stability during storage. Results showed that non-microencapsulated Bifidobacterium bifidum BB28 was more susceptible to simulated gastrointestinal conditions than microencapsulated bacteria. Microencapsulated Bifidobacterium BB28 exhibited a lower population reduction than free cells during exposure to simulated gastrointestinal conditions, the viable count of monolayer microcapsules, double layer microcapsules, and triple layer microcapsules decreased by nine magnitudes, four magnitudes, and one magnitude after 2 h, respectively. The enteric test showed that the microorganism cells were released from the monolayer, double layer, and triple layer microcapsules completely in 40 min. Moreover, the optimum storage times of free Bifidobacterium BB28, monolayer microcapsules, double layer microcapsules, and triple layer microcapsules were 21 days, 21 days, 28 days, and more than 35 days in orange juice, pure milk, and nutrition Express (a commercially available milk based drink), and the viable counts were maintained at 1×106 CFU g−1 or more, which means that the double layer and triple layer of microcapsules of B. bifidum BB28 have great potential in food application.

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This paper develops an instrumental analytical approach for detection of fourteen polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in edible oil samples using gel permeation chromatography (GPC) and ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) coupled with diode array detector (DAD), and fluorescence detector (FLD). The GPC was used to remove triglycerides from edible oil samples. The extracted samples were then detected using UHPLC—DAD—FLD. In order to obtain good separation and high reproducibility, the UHPLC—DAD—FLD experimental condition was optimized. The PAHs including three groups of isomeric PAHs can be separated completely in 12 min using BEH Shield RP 18 column with a suitable gradient elution program. The mean recoveries were in the range of 73–110% with an acceptable reproducibility (RSD < 10%, n = 3). During real sample analysis, the method can decrease the chance of false positives with both DAD and FLD being used simultaneously. The results indicate that the approach is simple, easy, and acceptably reproducible, thereby showing great potential as a method for detection of fourteen PAHs contained in edible oil samples.

Open access
Acta Alimentaria
Authors:
Y.L. Xu
,
Y.D. Zhang
,
Z.P. Wang
,
W.W. Chen
,
C. Fan
,
J.Q. Xu
,
T. Wang
, and
S. Rong

Abstract

To explore the effect of sesamol on the cognition of APP/PS1 mice, 8-week-old APP/PS1 and wild-type male mice were divided into AD model group, AD + sesamol (50 mg kg−1 bw) group, and Control group. Sesamol was orally administered once a day for 5 months. Morris water maze was used to evaluate the learning and memory ability of mice. The number of synapses in the hippocampal neurons was detected by Golgi staining. Nissl staining was used to observe the changes of Nissl bodies in CA1 and CA3 regions of the hippocampus. Western blotting was used to detect the expression of Aβ, SIRT1, BDNF, and p-CREB/CREB in the hippocampus and cortex. Compared with the model group, sesamol decreased the latency period of APP/PS1 mice (P < 0.05) and increased the total number of neuronal dendritic spines in the hippocampal CA3 region, as well as increased the number of Nissl bodies (P < 0.05). Western blotting results showed that sesamol significantly reduced Aβ protein expression in the hippocampus and cortex, increased SIRT1 expression in the cortex, and increased BDNF expression in the hippocampus (P < 0.05). Sesamol improved the learning and memory abilities of APP/PS1 mice probably through increasing the density of neuronal dendritic spines and upregulating the levels of SIRT1 and BDNF.

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