The representation of Greeks and Trojans in the
of Dares has not been researched thoroughly so far. It seems that Dares’ narrative is not entirely impartial and neutral — as it has been assumed. However, a close reading of the text leads to the conclusion that the Greeks are represented in an idealized way, while the Trojans are depicted slightly negatively with barbarian characteristics. Furthermore, from this observation and some other scattered remarks of the author, it can be inferred that the
is written from a Greek perspective, but without explicit anti-Trojan or anti-Roman tendencies. In conclusion, this interpretation suggests the existence of a Greek original, but does not exclude the possibility that the work was written originally in Latin. In the first case, one can observe the Greek mentality of the Roman period evoking the glorious past of the ancestors, in the latter one, the perspective of a Roman citizen living in late antiquity.
Nicetas Choniates is the most significant and well-known Byzantine historian of the 12th century. This paper deals with his passages about the Hungarians, in particular with the representation of the Hungarians. The analysis is partly based on sporadic data found in the orations of Choniates, and chiefly on the related pieces of his History. A close inspection of these sources leads to three basic conclusions: 1) The representation of the Hungarians by Nicetas Choniates is fundamentally influenced by the contemporary Byzantine stereotypes, although sometimes one can feel a more open-minded approach towards strangers, characteristic of his time. 2) In the text of Choniates, the Hungarians also represent the mere “crowd”, as the other non-Byzantine nations do, and their representation is often subordinated to the author’s conception of history. 3) The Hungarians seem to be near the Western people in the hierarchy of barbarians.
The relationship of the three earliest sources (Herodotus, Plato, Xanthus) relating how Gyges came to power is controversial. Their most striking common feature is the motif of Gyges seizing power through getting hold of the queen. The close connection of the queen and power proves to be an Eastern motif, a special Persian interpretation of the
, according to which the royal woman bears the glory representing the sovereign power (χvarәnah-) and providing the ruler with legitimacy. Deriving from the Persian ideology of sovereignty, this motif tends to appear in Herodotus, in Xenophon and in the tradition about Alexander the Great. Therefore, the earliest sources relating this story must originate from the Old Persian short stories. The authenticity of the tale about Aladdin in the One Thousand and One Nights has been questioned several times since it does not have a tradition of codices. However, its parallels with the Gyges stories, particularly the presence of the special Persian interpretation of the
suggest a common Persian source, thus, the tale is likely to be authentic.
Nikétas Chóniatés a 12. század legjelentősebb és legismertebb bizánci történetírója. A dolgozat célkitűzése a szerző magyarokról szóló tudósításainak vizsgálata, különös tekintettel a történetíró magyarokról kialakított képére. Az elemzés kisebb részben a Chóniatés alkalmi beszédeiben található elszórt adatokra, nagyobb részben kortörténetének magyarokra vonatkozó szemelvényeire támaszkodik. A szöveg vizsgálata alapján két főbb következtetést vonhatunk le: 1. Nikétas Chóniatés magyarságképét alapvetően kora sztereotípiái határozták meg, de olykor már érezhető nála is a 12. századi Bizánc nyitottabb magatartása az idegenekkel szemben. 2. Chóniatés elbeszélésében a magyarok ugyanúgy „statiszták” csupán, mint a többi nem bizánci nép, az ábrázolás pedig gyakran a szerző történetírói felfogásának van alárendelve.
We study the almost sure convergence of the Bartlett estimator for the asymptotic variance of the sample mean of a stationary
weekly dependent process. We also study the a.\ s.\ behavior of this estimator in the case of long-range dependent observations.
In the weakly dependent case, we establish conditions under which the estimator is strongly consistent. We also show that,
after appropriate normalization, the estimator converges a.s. in the long-range dependent case as well. In both cases, our
conditions involve fourth order cumulants and assumptions on the rate of growth of the truncation parameter appearing in the
definition of the Bartlett estimator.