Bevezetés: Magyarországon az elmúlt években több alkalommal is
tapasztaltunk az év első három hónapjában halálozási csúcsokat. Az influenza
szerepének tisztázására még nem született olyan halandósági elemzés, amelynek
eredményei más országok ugyanolyan módszerrel kapott eredményeivel
összehasonlíthatók lennének. Célkitűzés: A 2009/10 és 2016/17
közötti időszakra vonatkozóan az influenzához köthető magyarországi
többlethalálozások alakulásának bemutatása a FluMOMO statisztikai programcsomag
alkalmazásával. Módszer: A halálozások heti számát (függő
változó) modellezzük egy többváltozós idősoros elemzéssel, amelyben az
influenzaaktivitás és az extrém időjárási körülmények szerepelnek magyarázó
változóként. Az influenzaaktivitást az influenzaszerű tünetekkel háziorvoshoz
fordulók konzultációs aránya (ILI) alapján becsüljük.
Eredmények: Az influenzával összefüggésbe hozhatóan
2009/10-ben 1091, 2010/11-ben 2969, 2011/12-ben 4036, 2012/13-ban 2336,
2013/14-ben 2608, 2014/15-ben 6470, 2015/16-ban 51, 2016/17-ben pedig 5162
haláleset történhetett. Az évenkénti átlagos többlethalandósági ráta az
össznépességben 0,5 és 52,7 (1/100 000) fő között alakult. A halálozás más
országokban hasonló módszerrel kapott számokhoz és rátákhoz viszonyítva
Magyarországon hasonló nagyságrendű, ugyanakkor tendenciaszerűen magasabb.
Következtetés: Magasabb oltási arányt elért országokban az
influenza okozta halálozás tendenciaszerűen alacsonyabb; Magyarországon az
oltási ráta növelésére van szükség. Orv Hetil. 2020; 161(23): 962–970.
Authors:Zsófia Bohák, Ottó Szenci, Andrea Harnos, Orsolya Kutasi and Levente Kovács
Temperament has not been taken into account in previous studies evaluating the stress response to exercise in horses. The aim of the present study was to investigate the cortisol response in Thoroughbred racehorses to a single exercise bout, and to analyse the results based on the basic personality of the horse examined. Twenty healthy Thoroughbred horses were selected for the study based on a 25-item rating questionnaire survey used for characterising equine temperament. Eight temperamental and twelve calm horses took part in the experiment. The horses trotted as a warm-up activity, and then galloped on a rounded sand track. Blood sampling was conducted four times for each horse. Horses with a more excitable temperament showed a higher cortisol response to the test (P = 0.036). In conclusion, cortisol levels in response to a mild intensive exercise can be affected by temperament in horses. Serum cortisol may be a relevant marker to quantify individual temperamental differences in racehorses.
Authors:Zoltán Szelényi, Dorottya Győri, Szabolcs Boldizsár, Levente Kovács, Attila Répási, László Molnár and Ottó Szenci
The aim of this study was to examine the effect of twin pregnancy, fetal laterality, the number of corpora lutea (CL) and cavitary CL on pregnancy losses in Holstein-Friesian cows with a positive pregnancy diagnosis based on ultrasonography between days 29–42 after AI. Pregnancy was confirmed by transrectal palpation between days 57–70 after AI and at the time of drying-off as well. Twin pregnancy rate was 8.4% at the time of the early pregnancy examination. Pregnancy loss did not differ between singleton- and twin-carrying animals either between days 57–70 of gestation or at drying-off. More losses occurred in singletons between days 29–42 and 57–70 in cows with cavitary than in cows with noncavitary CL (12.1% vs. 3.6%; P < 0.05) and in cows with double CL than in cows with single CL (7.3% vs. 3.6% %; P < 0.05). Between days 57–70 of gestation and drying-off this difference was still significant (20.7% vs. 3.7%; P < 0.001), while it was non-significant between cows with one CL (5.7%) vs. double CL (3.7%). Cavity occurrence was not affected by hormone therapy prior to AI (either PGF2α or OvSynch; 4.4% vs. 5.4%, respectively); however, the number of CL was reduced by the treatments (11.6 vs. 19.6%; P < 0.0005). In twin pregnancies there was no difference in the pregnancy losses between bilateral and unilateral pregnancies at any time point. The length of gestation was 278.2 ± 10.5 (singleton) and 267.4 ± 31.2 (twin) days, respectively (P < 0.01). The stillbirth ratio was higher in twin carriers than in singleton carriers (19.5% vs. 5.3%; P < 0.001).
Authors:Boglárka Vincze, András Gáspárdy, Levente Kovács, Ervin Albert, Luca Kézér, Ferenc Baska and Ottó Szenci
Transabdominal ultrasonography has been shown to be a useful and reliable method for assessing fetal well-being in horses and cattle. To test the applicability of fetal aortic diameter measurement in cattle, 44 late-term pregnant cows and heifers were examined 21 to 0 days prior to calving. Mean fetal aortic diameter was 2.07 ± 0.14 cm and mean fetal heart rate (FHR) was 109 ± 17 bpm. Three dead calves were dissected and their aortic diameter was measured in a water bath. The mean birth weight (n = 44) was 39.9 ± 5.8 kg. There was a significant negative correlation between FHR and fetal aortic diameter. However, although some studies have shown that fetal aortic diameter strongly correlates with birth weight in near-term horses and cattle, in this study there was no correlation between fetal aortic diameter and birth weight in Holstein-Friesian cows and heifers irrespective of whether the fetus was born alive or dead.
Authors:Viktor Jurkovich, Fruzsina Luca Kézér, Ferenc Ruff, Mikolt Bakony, Margit Kulcsár and Levente Kovács
The heart rate variability (HRV) parameters of dairy cows were monitored during parlour (PARL) and the later installed automatic (AMS) milking on a small-scale commercial dairy farm in Hungary. The aim of the study was to assess stress in relation to the type of milking and the frequency of human interaction. Parlour milking involved regular moving and crowding of the animals with frequent human interaction, which were much less frequent in automatic milking. The first phase of the study was conducted prior to the changeover [n = 27] and the second two months afterwards [n = 19 (of the cows from the first phase)]. Heart rate (HR) was recorded by the Polar RS800 CX recording system. HRV parameters indicative of sympathovagal balance were calculated for periods of lying and standing in the barn, waiting before milking and milking, respectively. Morning and evening faecal glucocorticoid concentrations were also measured. Fear of humans was tested by an avoidance distance test. Baseline HRV parameters showed no difference (P > 0.05) between the two systems. In the periods before, during and after milking a higher sympathetic tone was detected in cows in the PARL phase. Mean faecal glucocorticoid concentrations were higher at the time of parlour milking. The avoidance distance did not differ between the two phases. The results suggest that automatic milking might be less stressful for cows than parlour milking, possibly due to the shorter duration of restraint after milking and the less frequent human interaction.
Authors:József Prokisch, Levente Czeglédi, Béla Kovács, Lajos Daróczi, Éva Széles, János Tamás, Frédéric Mabille and Zoltán Győri
Morphology, shape and surface area of wheat kernel are important factors for the characterisation of winter wheat (
) varieties in the milling industry. The surface area of kernel, due to the lack of a simple and reliable method, is not measured, but usually calculated from the length and diameter of kernel. Silver precipitation, a new original method has been developed for the measurement of kernel surface area. This method is suitable for measuring the surface of cereal seed in case of individual kernel or more kernels together. According to the silver precipitation method, metal silver was precipitated on the kernel surface. After this step the precipitated silver was dissolved from the kernel and the silver concentration in the solution was measured by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry. The concentration of silver in the solution is in close correlation with the surface area of kernel. The method was calibrated to the direct surface measurement of individual kernels and was compared to the calculated surface results.
Authors:Renátó Kovács, Anita Czudar, László Horváth, Levente Szakács, László Majoros and József Kónya
Two Balb/C mouse models of Candida infection were used to detect serum interleukin-6 (IL-6) responses. The first model used systemic infection by Candida albicans ATCC 10231 strain infected through the lateral tail vein of mice without any specific pretreatment. The median Candida burdens of the kidneys were 1.5 × 106 CFU/ml 24 h postinoculation (p.i.) and 1.2 × 107 CFU/ml 72 h p.i., while median serum IL-6 levels were 479.3 pg/ml and 934.5 pg/ml, respectively. The Candida burden showed significant correlation with serum IL-6 24 h p.i. (R2 = 0.6358; P = 0.0082) but not 72 h p.i.The second model was a mouse vaginitis model applying intravaginal inoculation of mice pretreated with subcutaneous estradiol-valerate (10 mg/ml) 3 days before infection. Candida cell count in vaginal lavage fluid was 2.8 × 106 CFU/ml 24 h p.i. and 1.4 × 108 CFU/ml 72 h p.i. Serum IL-6 response was detected in 4 of 15 mice 24 h p.i. and 9 of 15 mice 72 h p.i. Even the responders had low IL-6 serum levels (mean values 29.9 pg/ml and 60.1 pg/ml, respectively) not correlating with Candida cell count in vaginal lavage fluid.In conclusion, serum IL-6 had strong relationship with systemic C. albicans infection while the local C. albicans infection of the vagina led to partial, prolonged and limited serum IL-6 response.
Authors:Dávid Buják, Zoltán Szelényi, Ali Choukeir, Levente Kovács, Fruzsina Luca Kézér, Szabolcs Boldizsár, László Molnár and Ottó Szenci
The authors monitored the postpartum period during the first seven weeks after calving at a Holstein-Friesian dairy farm in Hungary. Calvings occurred between 2013 and 2015 in three periods from June to November each year (n = 314). Data were collected from the farm record and ultrasonographic examinations were performed between 22 to 28 and 43 to 49 days in milk (DIM), respectively. The animals were followed until successful artificial insemination (AI), i.e. until becoming pregnant or until culling, but at most at 365 DIM. The prevalence of dystocia, twin calving, stillbirth rate and retained fetal membranes (RFM) was 23.2%, 3.8%, 3.5%, and 34.4%, respectively. Altogether 38.9% of the cows (n = 122) had bacterial complications of involution in the first 49 DIM. The prevalence of Grade 2 clinical (puerperal) metritis (CM) was 20.1% within 5 DIM, 10.5% between 6 to 10 DIM and 13.1% from 11 to 20 DIM, while 9.9% of the cows had clinical endometritis (CEM) between 21 and 28 DIM and 1.3% of the cows between 42 and 49 DIM, respectively. Pyometra was diagnosed in 1% of the cows between 21 and 28 DIM and 0.3% between 42 to 49 DIM, respectively. About 80% (80.6%) of the cows were inseminated at least once (n = 253). The success rate of the first AI was 26.9% (n = 68). Dystocia, twin calving, RFM, CM, CEM and cyclicity had no significant effect on the days between calving and first AI, however, according to the Kaplan-Meier analysis stillbirth significantly increased the number of days from calving to first AI (P = 0.039). According to the Kaplan- Meier analysis dystocia, twin calving, stillbirth, RFM, and cyclicity had no effect on the days open. In cows with CM developed within 5 DIM or with CEM diagnosed between 21 and 28 DIM the number of days open significantly decreased (P = 0.009 and P = 0.007, respectively), which confirms the importance of early diagnosis and treatment of uterine diseases. Similar surveys should be conducted to discover the risk factors for reproductive diseases in order to decrease the reproductive losses in dairy farms.
Authors:Baukje G. Andela, Frank J. C. M. Van Eerdenburg, Ali Choukeir, Dávid Buják, Zoltán Szelényi, Szabolcs Boldizsár, Fruzsina Luca Kézér, László Molnár, Levente Kovács and Ottó Szenci
Activities of alkaline phosphatase, aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase, and concentrations of serum metabolites [beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) and non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA)] of primiparous (n = 83) and multiparous (n = 213) Holstein cows were studied as possible predictors of retained fetal membranes (RFM), grade 2 clinical metritis (CM) and clinical endometritis (CEM). A logistic regression model was used to calculate odds ratios (OR) for the prevalence of CM diagnosed between 0–5, 6–10 and 11–20 days in milk (DIM) and for the prevalence of CEM diagnosed between 22–28 and 42–49 DIM. The activities of the examined serum enzymes did not show significant associations either with CM or with CEM. For NEFA sampled on days 0 and 5, an OR of 2.38 for CM 0–20 DIM and an OR of 2.58 for CM 11–20 DIM was found. For BHB sampled on days 0 and 5, an OR of 8.20 for CEM 22–28 and 42–49 DIM and an OR of 1.98 for CM 6–10 DIM were found. The prevalence of RFM was higher in ≥ 4 parity cows compared to primiparous cows (46.3% vs. 26.5%). BHB and NEFA levels measured between 0 and 5 DIM could have a predictive ability for postpartum uterine disorders such as RFM, CM and CEM.
Authors:Gabriella Vácz, Attila Cselenyák, Zsuzsanna Cserép, Rita Benkő, Endre Kovács, Eszter Pankotai, Andrea Lindenmair, Susanne Wolbank, Charlotte M. Schwarz, Dénes B. Horváthy, Levente Kiss, István Hornyák and Zsombor Lacza
Human amniotic epithelial cells (hAECs) are promising tools for endothelial repair in vascular regenerative medicine. We hypothesized that these epithelial cells are capable of repairing the damaged endothelial layer following balloon injury of the carotid artery in adult male rats.
Two days after injury, the transplanted hAECs were observed at the luminal side of the arterial wall. Then, 4 weeks after the injury, significant intimal thickening was observed in both untreated and cell implanted vessels. Constriction was decreased in both implanted and control animals. Immunohistochemical analysis showed a few surviving cells in the intact arterial wall, but no cells were observed at the site of injury. Interestingly, acetylcholine-induced dilation was preserved in the intact side and the sham-transplanted injured arteries, but it was a trend toward decreased vasodilation in the hAECs’ transplanted vessels.
We conclude that hAECs were able to incorporate into the arterial wall without immunosuppression, but failed to improve vascular function, highlighting that morphological implantation does not necessarily result in functional benefits and underscoring the need to understand other mechanisms of endothelial regeneration.