The Taihang Mountain Range is located at E112°50′–114°30′, N35°20′–39°30′ in North China. This study aimed to reveal relationships between plant communities, soil variables and topographic variables. Floristic data and environmental data from sixty-eight quadrats of 10 m × 20 m along an elevation gradient from 1050 to 2180 m were analysed by TWINSPAN, DCA and CCA. Eight vegetation formations were recognized, all secondary successional stages following the original broad-leaved deciduous forests’ distraction by human activities. The results showed that the community patterns are related to both soil variables and topographic variables. Among the soil variables, soil N, P, K and organic matter were found to be the most important factors forcing the spatial patterns of plant communities. The vegetation patterns were also significantly correlated with the topographic variables, elevation, slope and aspect. Interactions between the environmental variables were significant. It is concluded that further measures for the conservation of vegetation and protection of soils in the Taihang Mountains must be undertaken.
Authors:Li Xi, Liu Yi, Wu Jun, Liang Huigang, and Qu Songsheng
The action of three kinds of the selenomorpholine compounds on a strain ofEscherichia coli was studied by microcalorimetry. Differences in their capacities to affect the metabolism of this bacterium were observed.
The extent and duration of the effect on the metabolism as judged from the rate constant (k) of Escherichia coli (in log phase) varied with the different drugs. The kinetics show that selenomorpholine compounds had an effect on the metabolism
process of Escherichia coli. The k of Escherichia coli in the presence of the drugs increased with the increasing concentrations of the drugs (C) at low concentration; but at high concentration, the rate constant decreased with the increasing concentrations of the drugs.
The experimental results reveal that the sequence of antibiotic activity of selenomorpholines is: N-selenomorpholinemethyl
succinimide and its hydrochloride>N-(α-selenomorpholinebenzyl) succinimide.
Authors:Peng Sun, Cunquan Yuan, Li Dai, Yang Xi, Yunfei Li, Ruiyang Hu, Yuhan Sun, Zhaohe Xu, and Yun Li
Emasculation and bagging of flowers, which are widely used in the controlled pollination of monoclinous plants, may induce premature senescence, flower abscission and low fruit set. To determine the mechanism responsible for these phenomena, levels of abscisic acid (ABA), jasmonic acid (JA), indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), ethylene, soluble sugars, reducing sugars and free amino acids in black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia) flowers subjected to different treatments were quantified at different developmental stages. The phytohormones and assimilates were also quantified in untreated flowers to investigate the presence of discernible patterns. The levels of ethylene and ABA in emasculated and bagged (EB) flowers increased prematurely compared with those of untreated flowers, whereas the content of reducing sugars in EB flowers decreased compared with that of untreated flowers. These results indicated that the premature increase in ethylene and ABA synthesis, and the decrease in reducing sugars content, in EB flowers may cause flower abscission and result in low fruit set, which may be relevant for assimilate applications and future research on the regulation of controlled pollinations with exogenous phytohormones.
Authors:Tingting Fang, Xi Li, Chenggang Wang, Zhijun Zhang, Tian Zhang, Junmin Zeng, Peng Liu, and Chaocan Zhang
Cu(nor)2·H2O (1), Zn(nor)2·4H2O (2), Ni(nor)2·2H2O (3), [Cu(nor)(phen)]NO3·4H2O (4), [Zn(nor)(phen)]NO3·2H2O (5), and [Ni(nor)(phen)]NO3·3H2O (6) were synthesized and their action on Tetrahymena growth was studied by microcalorimetry. The growth constant (k), inhibitory ratio (I), and half-inhibiting concentration (IC50) were calculated, which showed that the complexes had a strong inhibitory effect on Tetrahymena. All these complexes can inhibit the growth of Tetrahymena more strongly than norfloxacin. The norfloxacin–metal complexes exhibited better inhibitory activity than nor–phen–metal complexes. The power–time curves of Tetrahymena growth in the presence of norfloxacin were also measured. It was found that all complexes showed higher inhibitory activity than norfloxacin. And the inhibitory mechanism was discussed preliminarily. The diverse inhibition may be due to the ability of the complexes to penetrate into cells and the effect of these complexes on the nucleic acid. Microcalorimetry has been used extensively in many biological and chemical investigations as a universal, non-destructive, continuously running, and highly sensitive tool.
Authors:Libin Wang, Xi Li, Le Mi, Xin Shen, Tian Feng, Xueying Liu, and Qingwei Wang
2′,4′,6′,4-Tetra-O-acetylphloretin (TAPHL) is a prodrug of phloretin (PHL) in which the OH groups are protected by acetylation. A validated liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (LC–MS/MS) method for the determination of PHL in rat biological matrices was developed and applied to investigate and compare the pharmacokinetics, tissue distribution, and excretion of PHL and TAPHL in rats following a single oral administration. The method was validated for accuracy, precision, linearity, range, selectivity, lower limit of quantification (LLOQ), recovery, and matrix effect. All validation parameters met the acceptance criteria according to regulatory guidelines. The mean pharmacokinetic parameters of tmax, Cmax, AUC(0 − t), CL/F, and t1/2 were observed after oral administration in rats. The data showed that PHL was absorbed and eliminated rapidly from plasma after oral administration. The pharmacokinetic properties are improved, such as the tmax has been prolonged and the area under the curve (AUC) has been enhanced after oral administration of TAPHL to rats. Tissue distribution results indicated that PHL could be rapidly and widely distributed into tissues but could not effectively cross the blood–brain barrier in rats. After oral administration of TAPHL to rats, its tissue distribution to rats was similar as that after oral administration of equimolar PHL. In addition, higher recoveries of PHL following administration of TAPHL indicated that TAPHL might reduce the excretion of PHL from the body by reducing the first pass effect.
Authors:De-Xin Ding, Xi-Tao Liu, Nan Hu, Guang-Yue Li, and Yong-Dong Wang
Experiments on the removal and recovery of U(VI) from aqueous solution by tea waste were conducted. The adsorbent was characterized
by scanning electron microscope and energy dispersive spectrometer before and after the adsorption treatment. The removal
of U(VI) amounts to 86.80 % at optimum pH 6. The adsorption process reaches its equilibrium in 12 h at 308 K, and the kinetic
characteristic can be described by the pseudo-second-order kinetic equation. The amount of adsorption increases from 22.92
to 142.21 mg g−1 with the decrease of tea waste dosage from 100 to 10 mg for solution with an initial uranium concentration of 50 mg L−1. Desorption for the four strippants is higher than 80 %. The equilibrium data are more agreeable with Freundlich isotherm
than Langmuir isotherm.
Authors:S.-J. Tian, G.-X. Xi, Q.-T. Cheng, X.-D. Lou, and J.-H. Li
The inclusion complex of benzaldehyde (BA) with β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) was prepared and was studied by thermal analysis and
X-ray diffractometry. The composition of the complex was identified by TG and elemental analysis as β-CDBA9H2O. TG and DSC studies showed that the thermal dissociation of β-CDBA9H2O took place in three stages: dehydration in the range 70-120C; dissociation of β-CDBA in the range 235-270C; and decomposition
of β-CD above 280C. The kinetics of dissociation of β-CDBA in flowing dry nitrogen was studied by means of TG both at constant
temperature and at linearly increasing temperature. The results showed that the dissociation of β-CDBA was dominated by a
one-dimensional random nucleation and subsequent growth process (A2). The activation energy E was 124. 8 kJ mol-1, and the pre-exponential factor A 5.041011 min-1.
Authors:Su Lian-Lin, Cheng Xue, Ding Xi-Yan, Mao Chun-Qin, Lu Tu-Lin, Hao Min, Li Ping, and Qin Sirui
In this research study, a rapid, sensitive, and specific high-performance liquid chromatography–electrospray ionization–tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC–ESI–MS/MS) method was established and validated, in regard to the simultaneous quantification of five sedative and hypnotic lignans (schisandrin, schisandrol B, schisantherin A, deoxyschisandrin, and schisandrin B) in various tissues of rats (including heart, liver, spleen, lung, and kidney). The purpose of the study was to clarify the tissue distribution of the total lignans extract of Schisandra chinensis (SC). Then, the analytes were separated on a MERCK Purospher STAR LP C18 column (250 mm × 4.6 mm, 5 μm), with a mobile phase consisting of 0.05% (v/v) formic acid acetonitrile, and 0.05% (v/v) formic acid water, and a flow rate of 1 mL/min. All of the calibration curves of the five components showed good linearity (r > 0.9950), with ranges of 4.8 to 1920 ng/mL for analytes. The intra-day and inter-day precisions (relative standard deviation [RSD] %) were within 13.76% for all of the analytes. The average recoveries of the five analytes were greater than 85.23%, and the mean value of the matrix effect ranged from 82.3% to 93.4%. The five analytes were confirmed to be stable during the storage, preparation, and analytic procedures. The major target tissues of the total lignans extract of the SC in the rats were the livers and kidneys.
Authors:Mei-Xia Zhu, Sheng-Nan Li, Hai-Dan You, Bin Han, Zhi-Ping Wang, Yan-Xi Hu, Jin Li, and Yu-Feng Liu
High-performance liquid chromatography coupled with photodiode array detection and evaporative light scattering detection (HPLC—DAD—ELSD) was established to determine paeoniflorin and albiflorin simultaneously in Radix Paeoniae Rubra. The assay was performed on a Diamonsil C18 (4.6 mm × 250 mm, 5 μm) column by a gradient elution program with acetonitrile and aqueous formic acid (0.05% v/v) as mobile phase at a flow rate of 1.0 mL min−1. The detection wavelength of DAD was 230 nm, and the evaporator tube temperature of ELSD was set at 110 °C with the nebulizing gas flow rate of 3 L min−1. The temperature of column was kept at 30 °C. The linear ranges of paeoniflorin and albiflorin were within 0.050–1.510 mg mL−1 and 1.007–5.035 mg mL−1. The recoveries of paeoniflorin and albiflorin were 96.2–102.9% and 95.0–102.4%, respectively, while the relative standard deviation (RSD) of them was 0.2–2.5%. This method was quick, simple, accurate, and specific. It could be used for the quality control of Radix Paeoniae Rubra. The proposed approach was expected as a powerful tool for the quality control of Radix Paeoniae Rubra.
Authors:Yi-Xi Zhou, Li-Xian Sun, Zhong Cao, Jian Zhang, Fen Xu, Li-Fang Song, Zi-Ming Zhao, and Yong-Jin Zou
Two metal–organic frameworks (MOFs) of M(HBTC)(4,4′-bipy)·3DMF [M = Ni (for 1) and Co (for 2); H3BTC = 1,3,5-benzenetricarboxylic acid (1,3,5-BTC); 4,4′-bipy = 4,4′-bipyridine; DMF = N,N′-dimethylformamide] were synthesized by a one-pot solution reaction and a solvothermal method, respectively, and characterized by powder X-ray diffraction and FT-IR spectra. The low-temperature molar heat capacities of M(HBTC)(4,4′-bipy)·3DMF were measured by temperature-modulated differential scanning calorimetry (TMDSC) for the first time. The thermodynamic parameters such as entropy and enthalpy relative to reference temperature 298.15 K were derived based on the above molar heat capacity data. Moreover, the thermal stability and the decomposition mechanism of M(HBTC)(4,4′-bipy)·3DMF were investigated by thermogravimetry analysis (TGA). The experimental results through TGA measurement demonstrate that both of the two compounds have a three-stage mass loss in air flow.