Authors:Lin Zhang, Wolfgang Glänzel and Liming Liang
This study aims at detecting the role of individual journals and uncovering structural patterns of information flow among
scientific journals in a cross-citation network, using different bibliometric indicators and statistical methods of data analysis.
Beyond measuring the individual journals’ position within the communication network, we shed light on their cognitive background
as well. Language barrier and lacking internationality proved one of the main hindrances for integration into the communication
network. Moreover, some document types hinder journals from establishing self-links. Against our expectations, we have found
a clear divergence between strongly interlinked and high-entropy journals. Furthermore, the analysis of strong links among
different fields allows the detection of high-interdisciplinary journals.
Monascus pigments, which are produced by various species of Monascus, often have been used as a natural colourant and as traditional natural food additives, especially in Southern China, Japan and Southeastern Asia. The limitation of wide using Monascus pigment is attributed to one of its secondary metabolites named citrinin. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of pigment and citrinin production via submerged fermentation (SmF) and solid-state fermentation (SF) from rice (Oryza sativa L.) by Monascus purpureus AS3.531. The optimal fermentation temperature and pH were significantly different for pigment production through different fermentation mode (35 °C, pH 5.0 for SF and 32 °C, pH 5.5 for SmF, respectively). Adding 2% (w/v) of glycerol in the medium could enhance the pigment production. On the optimized condition, although the concentration of citrinin produced by SmF (19.02 ug/g) increased more than 100 times than that by SF (0.018 ug/g), the pigment yield by SmF (7.93 U/g/g) could be comparable to that by SF (6.63 U/g/g). Those indicate us that fermentation mode seems to be the primary factor which influence the citrinin yield and secondary factor for pigment production.
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) strains are classified into 4 genotypes by nucleotide sequencing. Genotypes 3 and 4 infect humans and animals via HEV-contaminated food or water. HEV RNA was detected by PCR and antibodies were detected by ELISA. Since human studies showed that HEV IgG antibodies in sera can persist for extended periods, diagnosis of HEV infection in swine or humans is mainly based on serological detection using commercial ELISA kits. However, there is no supplemental method to verify ELISA results. Hence, we developed a novel method used for mutual correction of these common processes. Here, a modified stable HepG2 cell line was transfected with pcDNA3.1-ORF3 to express the swine HEV ORF3 protein. Based on this cell line, a novel immunoperoxidase monolayer assay (IPMA) was developed to detect antibodies against HEV. The results show that this method has good specificity, sensitivity and repeatability. When used to investigate 141 porcine serum samples, the IPMA had a coincidence rate of 92.2% with a commercial ELISA kit. The established IPMA described herein is valuable as a supplemental method to ELISA and can differentiate infections by HEV and other viruses.
Authors:Cuiying Li, Wei Zhang, Bo Zhao, Mei Liang and Canhui Lu
In this study, the solid-state shear pan-milling was employed to prepare a series of polymer/layered silicate (PLS) nanocomposites. During the process of pan-milling at ambient temperature, poly(vinyl alcohol)/organic montmorillonite (PVA/OMMT) can be effectively pulverized, resulting in coexistence of intercalated and exfoliated OMMT layers. The obtained PLS nanocomposites were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). TEM analysis indicated that OMMT dispersed homogeneously in PVA matrix and XRD results illustrated that pan-milling had an obvious effect on increase in the interlayer spacing of OMMT, and resulted in coexistence of intercalated and exfoliated OMMT layers formed. Thermal gravimetric analysis showed that thermal stability of PVA was improved owing to the incorporation of OMMT. Thermal decomposition kinetics of PVA/OMMT nanocomposites with different milling cycles of OMMT was also studied. Two types of OMMT are chosen to compare the effect of hydrophilicity of OMMT on PVA/OMMT nanocomposites.
Authors:Qiang Wu, Jianwen Bao, Chuck Zhang, Richard Liang and Ben Wang
Single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) and multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) membranes (buckypaper) were incorporated onto the surface of epoxy and bismaleimide (BMI) carbon fiber composites. Their flammability behaviors were investigated by a cone calorimeter. The composites with buckypaper reduced the heat release rate (HRR) by more than 60% peak and smoke generation by 50% during combustion. The effects of different buckypaper on the flame retardancy of epoxy and BMI were compared and discussed. Our research team found that buckypapers acted as an effective flame-retardant shield to dramatically reduce the fire hazards of composites if they survived during fire combustion. Thermogravimetric analyses was used to compare the thermo-oxidation stability of the resins and buckypapers to explain the different effects of SWCNT and MWCNT buckypaper on flammability of epoxy and BMI carbon fiber composites.
Authors:Qiang Wu, Chuck Zhang, Richard Liang and Ben Wang
Organic–inorganic hybrid composites of epoxy and phenyltrisilanol polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (Ph7Si7O9(OH)3, POSS-triol) were prepared via in situ polymerization of epoxy monomers. The nanocomposites of epoxy with POSS-triol can
be prepared in the presence of metal complex latent catalyst, aluminum triacetylacetonate ([Al]) for the reaction between
POSS-triol and diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A (DGEBA). The dispersion morphology of organic–inorganic hybrid was characterized
by scanning electronic microscopy (SEM). The thermostability of composites was evaluated by thermal gravimetric (TG) analysis.
The flammability was evaluated by cone calorimeter test. The presence of [Al] latent catalyst leads to a decrease in combustion
rate with respect to epoxy and epoxy/POSS composites as well as reduction in smoke, CO and CO2 production rate. The effect of [Al] is to reduce the size of spherical POSS particles from 3–5 μm in epoxy/POSS to 0.5 μm
in epoxy/POSS[Al]. Furthermore, POSS with smaller size may form compact and continue char layer on the surface of composites
Molar heat capacities
of acetaminophen were precisely measured with a small sample precision automated
adiabatic calorimeter over the temperature range from 80 to 330 K. A solid-solid
transition at 149.96 K was found from the Cp,m-T curve. The polynomial functions of Cp,.m(J
K-1 mol-1) vs. T were established
on the heat capacity measurements by means of the least square fitting method.
processes of acetaminophen have been studied by thermogravimetry. And the
thermal decomposition kinetics parameters, such as activation energy E, pre-exponential factor A
and reaction order n, were calculated by
TG-DTG techniques with the Freeman-Carroll method, Kissinger method
and Ozawa method. Accordingly the thermal decomposition kinetics equation
of acetaminophen is expressed as: dα/dt=2.67107e-89630/RT(1-α)0.23.
The process of fusion has been investigated through
DSC. The melting point, molar enthalpy and entropy of fusion are to be (441.890.04)
K, 26.490.44 kJ mol-1 and 59.801.01
J K-1 mol-1,
Authors:Lin Zhang, Frizo Janssens, Liming Liang and Wolfgang Glänzel
The objective of this study is to use a clustering algorithm based on journal cross-citation to validate and to improve the
journal-based subject classification schemes. The cognitive structure based on the clustering is visualized by the journal
cross-citation network and three kinds of representative journals in each cluster among the communication network have been
detected and analyzed. As an existing reference system the 15-field subject classification by Glänzel and Schubert (Scientometrics
56:55–73, <cite>2003</cite>) has been compared with the clustering structure.