The sensitivity on n-type gamma-X detectors for low-energy X- and -rays calls for coincidence corrections in the efficiency calibration that do not apply to the calibration of p-type detectors. Corrections were calculated for the effect of cascade coincidences between -rays, X-rays, annihilation radiation, and bremsstrahlung, for 15 radionuclides frequently used for efficiency calibration. Experimental results are presented for a -X detector with 37% relative efficiency at distances from 0.9 to 17.5 cm. After coincidence correction smooth efficiency curves were found for the energy range 12 to 2750 keV, even for the position closest to the detector.
Two samples of Napoleon's hair were received for determination of arsenic, mercury and other trace elements by INAA. Before sample irradiation, the hairs were washed following the IAEA washing procedure. Two standard reference materials of GBW09101 (human hair) and NIST/SRM1572 (citrus leaves) were analyzed along with Napoleon's hair for quality control. Standardization was conducted by applying the k0-method implemented in the program MULTINAA. The contents of arsenic and mercury as well as three additional elements chromium, antimony and zinc in Napoleon's hair are reported. Compared to the present normal levels, all of the determined elements in Napoleon's hair, except the mercury, are found to be irregular.
A pre-irradiation separation procedure, for gallium determination in biological and environmental materials by neutron activation analysis (NAA) is reported. The proposed method, based on ion-exchange chromatography, allows to eliminate the radiation risk, while taking the advantages of high sensitivity of NAA. The single comparator method is employed for gallium quantitative evaluation. Since no standard reference materials with certified gallium contents were available, the reliability of the proposed method was extensively investigated by various approaches. Four biological and one environmental standard reference materials, with gallium contents ranging from 54 g/g-3 ng/g, have been analyzed.
Neutron activation analysis based on the199Au indicator for platinum requires the separation of gold at high radiochemical purity. The limit of detection is strongly affected by the presence of gold; with a gold content of 50 pg/g, irradiating for 5 days at 5·1013 n/cm2s is needed to achieve a limit of detection of approximately 30 pg/g. In this case the nuclear interference from gold will exceed the level of platinum by several orders of magnitude and has to be determined with exceedingly high precision. Preliminary results for SRM 1577 Bovine Liver with 95% yield gave consistent results for Au, but Pt could not be detected.
This work is about k0-INAA using unstable neutron flux for sample irradiation. Due to slow transport, each irradiation in the channel DBVK consists of three phases: stable irradiation at the final position, and two additional irradiations during travelling by exposure to an increasing neutron flux in the delivery course and to a decreasing neutron flux in the fetch course. In this work, the neutron flux distribution along this channel was calibrated and the neutron flux variation with irradiation time was calculated, making it possible to evaluate activity growth during a complete irradiation period. The feasibility of the k0-method was checked by analyses of four SRM-materials and three multi-element standards at three DBVK-positions. An accuracy of better than ±10% was found for nearly all determined elements in each determination.
Authors:Lin Xilei, D. Van Renterghem, F. De Corte, and R. Cornelis
A study is made of the correction, in k0-standardized NAA, for interferences caused by fast neutron induced threshold reactions, second order reactions and235U-fission. The following examples are elaborated: determination of the Cr and Sc concentrations in a reference human serum, corrected for the54Fe(n,)51Cr and44Ca(n,;
–; n,)46Sc interferences, respectively, and the determination of Zr, Cs, La, Ce, Nd and Sm concentrations in USGS BCR-1 and G-2, corrected for235U(n, f) interference. A detailed uncertainty analysis and a comparison of the analytical results thus obtained with other literature values proves that the interferences can be accurately corrected for by employing the usual neutron flux monitors in the k0-method, namely a Zr-foil and a dilute Au–Al alloyed wire.
Authors:M. Rossbach, M. Blaauw, M. Bacchi, and Xilei Lin
New software was developed to assist users of the k0-approach in NAA to harmonize their results. The k0-IAEA software uses the holistic approach developed at the Delft Interfaculty Reactor Institute and incorporates the latest
k0 data catalogue together with additional information on coincidence and sum peaks, which together are used in the joint evaluation
of samples. Multiple irradiations as well as multiple measurements of samples are treated simultaneously. Flux parameter determination
as well as efficiency calibrations of detectors are accommodated using a single-measurement approach as developed at the Interfaculty
Reactor Institute, Delft. The standard Windows software will stimulate the application of the k0 approach through the free distribution and updates of the program.
Authors:Lin Xilei, F. De Corte, L. Moens, A. Simonits, and J. Hoste
USGS BCR-1 and G-2, NBS 1633a Coal Fly-Ash and a 7-element synthetic standard for biological material have been analysed in this work by reactor NAA, using the k0-standardization method. The analyses were performed independently in the analytical laboratories of the Institute for Nuclear Sciences (INW), Gent, and the Central Research Institute for Physics (KFKI), Budapest. This procedure allowed not only a comparison with the specified data or with other published values, but enabled a check of the consistency of our own results obtained in largely different experimental circumstances. As concluded the k0-standardization method combines general versatility (with respect to irradiation and counting conditions) with good accuracy, while keeping the experimental work as simple as possible. Since the k0 method is a computer-oriented technique, a FORTRAN IV program was designed and applied on a VAX 11/780 machine.
Authors:L. Moens, F. De Corte, A. Simonits, Lin Xilei, A. De Wispelaere, J. De Donder, and J. Hoste
A new method is presented to calculate with improved accuracy the absolute peak efficiency of cylindrical Ge and Ge(Li) detectors
for point, disk and cylinder sources, positioned at any source-detector distance. Moreover attention was paid to true-coincidence
effects. The method is extensively tested and applied for the analysis of reference materials. The accuracy turned out to
be 3% or better.